CAMEROON

Cameroon

Map of Cameroon Republik Kamerun ( Perancis : République du Cameroun) adalah sebuah negara yang tengah dan barat Afrika . It is bordered by Nigeria to the west; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea , Gabon , and the Republic of the Congo to the south. Ia berbatasan dengan Nigeria di barat, Chad di timur laut; di Republik Afrika Tengah di timur, dan Equatorial Guinea , Gabon , dan Republik Kongo di selatan. Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of Bonny , part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean . itu pantai Kamerun terletak di Teluk Bonny , bagian dari Teluk Guinea dan Samudera Atlantik . The country is called " Africa in miniature " for its geological and cultural diversity. Negara ini disebut " Afrika dalam miniatur "untuk geologi dan keanekaragaman budaya. Natural features include beaches, deserts, mountains, rainforests, and savannas. fitur Alam termasuk pantai, gurun, pegunungan, hutan hujan, dan savannas. The highest point is Mount Cameroon in the southwest, and the largest cities are Douala , Yaoundé , and Garoua . Titik tertinggi adalah Gunung Kamerun di barat daya, dan kota-kota terbesar adalah Douala , Yaoundé , dan Garoua . Cameroon is home to over 200 different linguistic groups. Kamerun adalah rumah bagi lebih dari 200 kelompok bahasa yang berbeda. The country is well known for its native styles of music, particularly makossa and bikutsi , and for its successful national football team . Negara ini terkenal dengan gaya aslinya musik, khususnya Makossa dan bikutsi , dan untuk sukses tim sepak bola nasional . English and French are the official languages. Inggris dan Perancis adalah bahasa resmi.

Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest. Awal penduduk wilayah termasuk peradaban Sao di sekitar danau Chad dan Baka pemburu-pengumpul di hutan hujan tenggara. Portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camarões ("River of Shrimp "), the name from which Cameroon derives. Fulani soldiers founded the Adamawa Emirate in the north in the 19th century, and various ethnic groups of the west and northwest established powerful chiefdoms and fondoms . Penjelajah Portugis mencapai pantai di abad ke-15 dan menamai daerah Rio dos Camarões ("Sungai Udang "), nama yang berasal Kamerun. Fulani prajurit mendirikan Emirat Adamawa di utara pada abad ke-19, dan berbagai kelompok etnis barat dan barat laut didirikan chiefdom kuat dan fondom . Cameroon became a German colony in 1884. Kamerun menjadi Jerman koloni pada tahun 1884.

After World War I, the territory was divided between France and Britain as League of Nations mandates . Setelah Perang Dunia I, wilayah ini dibagi antara Perancis dan Britania sebagai mandat Liga Bangsa-Bangsa . The Union des Populations du Cameroun political party advocated independence but was outlawed by France in the 1950s. The Union des Populasi du Cameroun partai politik mendukung kemerdekaan namun dilarang oleh Perancis pada 1950-an. It waged war on French and UPC militants forces until 1971. Ini mengobarkan perang terhadap Perancis dan UPC pasukan militan sampai tahun 1971. In 1960, the French administered part of Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo . Pada 1960, Perancis bagian dikelola Kamerun merdeka sebagai Republik Kamerun di bawah Presiden Ahmadou Ahidjo . The southern part of British Cameroons merged with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. The bagian selatan dari Inggris Cameroons bergabung dengan itu pada tahun 1961 untuk membentuk Republik Federal Kamerun. The country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 and the Republic of Cameroon in 1984. Negara ini berganti nama menjadi Republik Amerika Kamerun pada tahun 1972 dan Republik Kamerun pada tahun 1984.

Compared to other African countries, Cameroon enjoys relatively high political and social stability. Dibandingkan dengan negara-negara Afrika lainnya, Kamerun menikmati stabilitas politik dan sosial yang relatif tinggi. This has permitted the development of agriculture, roads, railways, and large petroleum and timber industries. Ini telah memungkinkan pengembangan pertanian, jalan, kereta api, dan minyak bumi besar dan industri kayu. Nevertheless, large numbers of Cameroonians live in poverty as subsistence farmers. Namun demikian, sejumlah besar Kamerun hidup dalam kemiskinan sebagai petani subsisten. Power lies firmly in the hands of the president, Paul Biya , and his Cameroon People's Democratic Movement party. Power terletak tegas di tangan presiden, Paul Biya , dan nya Demokratik Rakyat Kamerun Gerakan partai. The English speaking territories of Cameroon have grown increasingly alienated from the government, and politicians from those regions have called for greater decentralization and even the secession (eg: the Southern Cameroons National Council ) of the former British-governed territories. The wilayah berbahasa Inggris Kamerun telah berkembang semakin terasing dari pemerintah, dan politisi dari daerah-daerah telah menyerukan desentralisasi yang lebih besar dan bahkan pemisahan diri (misalnya: Cameroons Selatan Dewan Nasional ) dari wilayah Inggris-mantan diatur.

Sejarah

Joseph Merrick (shown here attending an Isubu funeral in 1845) was a Jamaican Baptist missionary who established a church among the Isubu of the coast. Joseph Merrick (yang ditampilkan di sini menghadiri Isubu pemakaman di 1845) adalah seorang misionaris Baptis Jamaika yang mendirikan sebuah gereja di antara Isubu dari pantai.

The territory of present day Cameroon was first settled during the Neolithic . Wilayah sekarang Kamerun dulu pernah menetap selama Neolitik . The longest continuous inhabitants are groups such as the Baka . [ 3 ] The Sao culture arose around Lake Chad c. Penduduk terlama adalah kelompok-kelompok seperti Baka . [3] The Sao budaya muncul di sekitar Danau Chad c. AD 500 and gave way to the Kanem and its successor state, the Bornu empire. AD 500 dan memberi jalan ke Region Kanem dan negara penggantinya, yang Bornu kekaisaran. Kingdoms, fondoms , and chiefdoms arose in the west. Kerajaan, fondom , dan chiefdom muncul di barat.

Portuguese sailors reached the coast in 1472. pelaut Portugis mencapai pantai di 1472. They noted an abundance of the mud lobster Lepidophthalmus turneranus in the Wouri River and named it Rio dos Camarões , Portuguese for "River of Shrimp", and the phrase from which Cameroon is derived. Mereka melihat kelimpahan lumpur lobster turneranus Lepidophthalmus di Sungai Wouri dan menamainya Rio dos Camarões, Portugis untuk "Sungai Udang", dan frase yang berasal Kamerun. Over the following few centuries, European interests regularised trade with the coastal peoples, and Christian missionaries pushed inland. Selama beberapa abad berikut, Eropa datang perdagangan dengan masyarakat pesisir, dan Kristen misionaris mendorong pedalaman. In the early 19th century, Modibo Adama led Fulani soldiers on a jihad in the north against non-Muslim and partially Muslim peoples and established the Adamawa Emirate . Pada awal abad ke-19, Modibo Adama memimpin Fulani tentara pada jihad di utara melawan non-Muslim dan sebagian masyarakat Muslim dan mendirikan Emirat Adamawa . Settled peoples who fled the Fulani caused a major redistribution of population. [ 4 ] orang yang melarikan diri itu Fulani menyebabkan redistribusi besar penduduk. [4]

The German Empire claimed the territory as the colony of Kamerun in 1884 and began a steady push inland. The Kekaisaran Jerman mengklaim wilayah sebagai koloni dari Kamerun pada tahun 1884 dan mulai push stabil pedalaman. They initiated projects to improve the colony's infrastructure, relying on a harsh system of forced labour . [ 5 ] With the defeat of Germany in World War I , Kamerun became a League of Nations mandate territory and was split into French Cameroun and British Cameroons in 1919. Mereka memulai proyek untuk memperbaiki koloni's infrastruktur, mengandalkan pada sistem yang keras dari kerja paksa . [5] Dengan kekalahan Jerman dalam Perang Dunia I , Kamerun menjadi Bangsa-Bangsa mandat Liga wilayah dan dipecah menjadi Perancis Cameroun dan Inggris Kamerun pada 1919 . France integrated the economy of Cameroun with that of France [ 6 ] and improved the infrastructure with capital investments, skilled workers, and continued forced labour. [ 5 ] Perancis kemudian menggabungkan ekonomi Cameroun dengan ekonomi Perancis [6] dan memperbaiki infrastruktur dengan penanaman modal, pekerja terampil, dan perbudakan. [5]

The British administered their territory from neighbouring Nigeria . Britania memerintah daerah mereka dari negara tetangga Nigeria . Natives complained that this made them a neglected "colony of a colony". Pribumi mengeluh bahwa ini membuat mereka koloni "yang terabaikan koloni". Nigerian migrant workers flocked to Southern Cameroons, ending forced labour but angering indigenous peoples. [ 7 ] The League of Nations mandates were converted into United Nations Trusteeships in 1946, and the question of independence became a pressing issue in French Cameroun. [ 6 ] France outlawed the most radical political party, the Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC), on 13 July 1955. Nigeria buruh migran berbondong-bondong ke Kamerun Selatan, mengakhiri kerja paksa tapi kemarahan masyarakat adat. [7] The mandat Liga Bangsa-Bangsa diubah menjadi United Trusteeships Bangsa-Bangsa pada tahun 1946, dan masalah kemerdekaan menjadi masalah yang mendesak di Perancis Cameroun. [6] Perancis melarang partai politik paling radikal, dengan Uni des Populasi du Cameroun (UPC), pada 13 Juli 1955. This prompted a long guerrilla war and the assassination of the party's leader, Ruben Um Nyobé while on a trip in Switzerland . [ 8 ] In British Cameroons, the question was whether to reunify with French Cameroun or join Nigeria. Hal ini menyebabkan perang gerilya panjang dan pembunuhan pemimpin partai ini, Ruben Um Nyobé sementara di perjalanan di Swiss . [8] Di Inggris Kamerun, pertanyaannya adalah apakah untuk menyatukan kembali dengan Perancis Cameroun atau bergabung Nigeria.

Ahmadou Ahidjo arrives at Washington, DC , in July 1982. Ahmadou Ahidjo tiba di Washington, DC , pada bulan Juli 1982.

On 1 January 1960, French Cameroun gained independence from France under President Ahmadou Ahidjo . Pada tanggal 1 Januari 1960, Perancis Cameroun mendapat kemerdekaan dari Perancis di bawah Presiden Ahmadou Ahidjo . On 1 October 1961, the formerly British Southern Cameroons united with French Cameroun to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. Pada tanggal 1 Oktober 1961, sebelumnya Inggris Cameroons Selatan bersatu dengan Perancis Cameroun untuk membentuk Republik Federal Kamerun. Ahidjo used the ongoing war with the UPC to concentrate power in the presidency, continuing with this even after the suppression of the UPC in 1971. [ 8 ] Ahidjo menggunakan perang yang sedang berlangsung dengan UPC berkonsentrasi kekuasaan presiden, dengan ini bahkan setelah UPC dikalahkan pada 1971. [8]

His political party, the Cameroon National Union (CNU), became the sole legal political party on 1 September 1966 and in 1972, the federal system of government was abolished in favour of a United Republic of Cameroon, headed from Yaoundé . [ 9 ] Ahidjo pursued an economic policy of planned liberalism , prioritising cash crops and petroleum exploitation. partai politik-Nya, Cameroon National Union (CNU), menjadi satu-satunya partai politik hukum pada tanggal 1 September 1966 dan pada 1972, sistem pemerintahan federal dihapus mendukung United Republik Kamerun, menuju dari Yaoundé . [9] Ahidjo mengejar suatu kebijakan ekonomi planned liberalism , mengutamakan cash crops dan minyak bumi. The government used oil money to create a national cash reserve, pay farmers, and finance major development projects; however, many initiatives failed when Ahidjo appointed unqualified allies to direct them. [ 10 ] Pemerintah menggunakan uang dari minyak untuk menciptakan persediaan uang nasional, membayar petani, dan membiayai proyek-proyek pembangunan besar, namun banyak proyek gagal karena sekutu Ahidjo ditunjuk memenuhi syarat untuk mengarahkan mereka. [10]

Ahidjo stepped down on 4 November 1982 and left power to his constitutional successor, Paul Biya . Ahidjo mengundurkan diri pada tanggal 4 November 1982 dan kekuasaan untuk penggantinya konstitusionalnya, Paul Biya . However, Ahidjo remained in control of the CNU and tried to run the country from behind the scenes until Biya and his allies pressured him into resigning. Namun, Ahidjo tetap mengendalikan CNU dan mencoba untuk memerintah negara dari belakang tirai sampai Biya dan sekutu-sekutunya mendesak dia ke mengundurkan diri. Biya began his administration by moving toward a more democratic government, but a failed coup d'état nudged him toward the leadership style of his predecessor. [ 11 ] Biya memulai masa pemerintahannya dengan bergerak menuju pemerintahan yang lebih demokratis, tetapi gagal kudeta menyenggolnya terhadap gaya kepemimpinan pendahulunya. [11]

An economic crisis took effect in the mid-1980s to late 1990s as a result of international economic conditions, drought, falling petroleum prices, and years of corruption , mismanagement, and cronyism . Sebuah krisis ekonomi mulai berlaku pada pertengahan 1980-untuk tahun 1990-an sebagai akibat dari kondisi ekonomi internasional, kekeringan, penurunan harga minyak bumi, serta tahun korupsi , mismanajemen, dan kronisme . Cameroon turned to foreign aid, cut government spending, and privatised industries. Kamerun berpaling pada bantuan asing, memotong pengeluaran pemerintah, dan privatisasi industri. With the reintroduction of multi-party politics in December 1990, the former British Cameroons pressure groups called for greater autonomy, with some ( SCNC ) advocating complete secession as the Republic of Ambazonia . [ 12 ] In February 2008, Cameroon experienced its worst violence in 15 years when a transport union strike in Douala escalated into violent protests in 31 municipal areas. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] Dengan reintroduksi multi-partai politik pada bulan Desember 1990, Cameroons tekanan kelompok mantan Inggris disebut untuk otonomi yang lebih besar, dengan beberapa ( SCNC ) menganjurkan pemisahan lengkap Republik Ambazonia . [12] Pada bulan Februari 2008, Kamerun mengalami kekerasan terburuk dalam 15 tahun ketika aksi mogok serikat buruh transportasi di Douala meningkat menjadi protes kekerasan di 31 wilayah kota. [13] [14]

[ edit ] Politics and government [ sunting ] Politik dan pemerintahan

President Paul Biya of Cameroon and Ambassador R. Presiden Paul Biya dari Kamerun dan Duta Besar R. Niels Marquardt of the United States, 16 February 2006. Niels Marquardt Amerika Serikat, 16 Februari 2006.

The President of Cameroon has broad, unilateral powers to create policy, administer government agencies, command the armed forces , negotiate and ratify treaties, and declare a state of emergency. [ 15 ] The president appoints government officials at all levels, from the prime minister (considered the official head of government), to the provincial governors, divisional officers, and urban-council members in large cities. Para Presiden Kamerun telah, unilateral kekuasaan luas untuk menciptakan kebijakan, mengatur badan-badan pemerintah, perintah angkatan bersenjata , bernegosiasi dan meratifikasi perjanjian, dan menyatakan keadaan darurat. [15] Presiden menunjuk pejabat pemerintah di semua tingkatan, dari perdana menteri (dianggap sebagai kepala resmi pemerintah), untuk para gubernur provinsi, pejabat divisi, dan anggota dewan di kota-kota besar. The president is selected by popular vote every seven years. Presiden dipilih melalui pemungutan suara populer setiap tujuh tahun. In smaller municipalities, the public elects mayors and councilors. Di kota kecil, masyarakat memilih walikota dan dewan.

Corruption is rife at all levels of government. Korupsi dipenuhi di semua tingkat pemerintahan. In 1997, Cameroon established anti-corruption bureaus in 29 ministries, but only 25% became operational, [ 16 ] and in 2007, Transparency International placed Cameroon at number 138 on a list of 163 countries ranked from least to most corrupt. [ 17 ] On 18 January 2006, Biya initiated an anti-corruption drive under the direction of the National Anti-Corruption Observatory . [ 16 ] Pada tahun 1997, Kamerun mendirikan biro anti-korupsi di 29 kementrian, tapi hanya 25% menjadi operasional, [16] dan pada tahun 2007, Transparency International menempatkan Kamerun di nomor 138 tentang daftar 163 negara yang diurutkan dari paling tidak paling korup. [17] Pada tanggal 18 Januari 2006, Biya memulai sebuah gerakan anti-korupsi di bawah arahan dari National Anti-Corruption Observatory . [16]

A statue of a chief in Bana , West Region, shows the prestige afforded such rulers. Sebuah patung seorang kepala di Bana , Wilayah Barat, menunjukkan prestise yang diberikan penguasa tersebut. The Cameroonian government recognizes the power of traditional authorities provided their rulings do not contradict national law. Pemerintah Kamerun mengakui kekuatan hukum yang diberikan otoritas tradisional mereka tidak bertentangan dengan hukum nasional.

Cameroon's legal system is largely based on French civil law with common law influences. [ 1 ] Although nominally independent, the judiciary falls under the authority of the executive's Ministry of Justice . [ 18 ] The president appoints judges at all levels. sistem hukum Kamerun sebagian besar didasarkan pada hukum sipil Perancis dengan pengaruh common law. [1] Walaupun nominal independen, peradilan berada di bawah kewenangan eksekutif Departemen Kehakiman . [18] Presiden menunjuk hakim di semua tingkat. The judiciary is officially divided into tribunals, the court of appeal , and the supreme court . peradilan secara resmi dibagi menjadi tribunal, dalam pengadilan banding , dan Mahkamah Agung . The National Assembly elects the members of a nine-member High Court of Justice that judges high-ranking members of government in the event they are charged with high treason or harming national security. Majelis Nasional memilih anggota-anggota sebuah sembilan Pengadilan Tinggi bahwa hakim-peringkat anggota tinggi pemerintahan dalam acara tersebut mereka dituduh melakukan pengkhianatan tingkat tinggi atau merugikan keamanan nasional.

Human rights organisations accuse police and military forces of mistreating and even torturing criminal suspects, ethnic minorities, homosexuals , and political activists. [ 19 ] Prisons are overcrowded with little access to adequate food and medical facilities, [ 20 ] [ 21 ] and prisons run by traditional rulers in the north are charged with holding political opponents at the behest of the government. [ 22 ] However, since the early 2000s, an increasing number of police and gendarmes have been prosecuted for improper conduct. [ 21 ] organisasi hak asasi manusia menuduh polisi dan pasukan militer memperlakukan dan bahkan menyiksa tersangka kriminal, etnis minoritas, homoseksual , dan aktivis politik. [19] Penjara penuh sesak dengan sedikit akses ke makanan yang cukup dan fasilitas medis, [20] [21] dan penjara yang oleh pemimpin tradisional di utara dibebankan dengan memegang lawan-lawan politiknya di atas perintah pemerintah. [22] Namun, sejak awal 2000-an, semakin banyak polisi dan polisi militer telah dituntut untuk melakukan yang tidak benar. [21]

The National Assembly makes legislation. The Majelis Nasional membuat undang-undang. The body consists of 180 members who are elected for five-year terms and meet three times per year. Tubuh terdiri dari 180 anggota yang dipilih untuk masa lima tahun dan bertemu tiga kali per tahun. Laws are passed on a majority vote. Undang-undang ini disahkan suara mayoritas. Rarely has the assembly changed or blocked legislation proposed by the president. [ 18 ] The 1996 constitution establishes a second house of parliament, the 100-seat Senate, but this body has never been put into practice. [ 1 ] The government recognises the authority of traditional chiefs, fons, and lamibe to govern at the local level and to resolve disputes as long as such rulings do not conflict with national law. [ 23 ] Jarang memiliki perakitan berubah atau undang-undang diblokir diusulkan oleh presiden. [18] Konstitusi 1996 mendirikan sebuah rumah kedua parlemen, kursi Senat 100, tapi tubuh ini belum pernah dipraktekkan. [1] Pemerintah mengakui kewenangan kepala suku tradisional, Fons, dan lamibe untuk memerintah di tingkat lokal dan untuk menyelesaikan sengketa selama aturan tersebut tidak bertentangan dengan hukum nasional. [23]

President Paul Biya 's Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (CPDM) was the only legal political party until December 1990. Presiden Paul Biya 's Kamerun Gerakan Rakyat Demokratik (CPDM) adalah hukum partai politik hanya sampai Desember 1990. Numerous regional political groups have since formed. Banyak kelompok-kelompok politik regional sejak terbentuk. The primary opposition is the Social Democratic Front (SDF), based largely in the Anglophone region of the country and headed by John Fru Ndi . [ 24 ] Biya and his party have maintained control of the presidency and the National Assembly in national elections, but rivals contend that these have been unfair. [ 12 ] Human rights organisations allege that the government suppresses the freedoms of opposition groups by preventing demonstrations, disrupting meetings, and arresting opposition leaders and journalists. [ 22 ] [ 25 ] Freedom House ranks Cameroon as "not free" in terms of political rights and civil liberties. [ 26 ] The last parliamentary elections were held on 22 July 2007. [ 27 ] Oposisi utama adalah Social Democratic Front (SDF), sebagian besar berbasis di wilayah Anglophone negara dan dipimpin oleh John Fru Ndi . [24] Biya dan partainya telah memegang kendali kepresidenan dan Majelis Nasional dalam pemilihan umum nasional, tetapi saingan berpendapat bahwa semua ini telah tidak adil. [12] organisasi hak asasi manusia menyatakan bahwa pemerintah menekan kebebasan kelompok oposisi dengan mencegah demonstrasi, mengganggu pertemuan, dan menangkap para pemimpin oposisi dan wartawan. [22] [25] Freedom House peringkat Kamerun sebagai " tidak bebas "dalam hal hak politik dan kebebasan sipil. [26] Yang terakhir pemilihan parlemen yang diadakan pada tanggal 22 Juli 2007. [27]

Cameroon is a member of both the Commonwealth of Nations and La Francophonie . Kamerun adalah anggota baik dalam Commonwealth of Nations dan La Francophonie . Its foreign policy closely follows that of its main ally, France (the former colonial ruler). [ 28 ] The country relies heavily on France for its defence, [ 18 ] although military spending is high in comparison to other sectors of government. [ 29 ] Biya has clashed with the government of Nigeria over possession of the Bakassi peninsula and with Gabon 's president, El Hadj Omar Bongo , over personal rivalries. [ 24 ] Its kebijakan luar negeri erat berikut bahwa dari sekutu utamanya, Perancis (mantan penguasa kolonial). [28] Negara ini sangat bergantung pada Perancis untuk pertahanan, [18] walaupun pengeluaran militer tinggi dibandingkan dengan sektor lain pemerintah. [29 ] Biya telah berselisih dengan pemerintah Nigeria atas kepemilikan Bakassi semenanjung dan dengan Gabon presiden s ', El Hadj Omar Bongo , lebih dari persaingan pribadi. [24]

[ edit ] Education and health [ sunting ] Pendidikan dan kesehatan

A traditional doctor advertises his services in Tatum , Northwest Region. Seorang dokter mengiklankan layanan tradisional di Tatum , Northwest Daerah. Such healers are popular alternatives to conventionally trained doctors. penyembuh alternatif tersebut populer untuk konvensional dokter terlatih.

Most children have access to free, state-run schools or subsidised, private and religious facilities. [ 30 ] The educational system is a mixture of British and French precedents [ 31 ] with most instruction in English or French. [ 32 ] Cameroon has one of the highest school attendance rates in Africa. [ 30 ] Girls attend school less regularly than boys do because of cultural attitudes, domestic duties, early marriage and pregnancy, and sexual harassment. Kebanyakan anak memiliki akses untuk membebaskan, sekolah yang dikelola negara atau disubsidi, dan agama fasilitas swasta. [30] The sistem pendidikan merupakan campuran Inggris dan Perancis preseden [31] dengan instruksi yang paling dalam bahasa Inggris atau Perancis. [32] Kamerun memiliki satu dari tingkat kehadiran sekolah tertinggi di Afrika. [30] Girls bersekolah kurang teratur daripada anak laki-laki lakukan karena sikap budaya, domestik tugas, pernikahan dini dan kehamilan, dan pelecehan seksual. Although attendance rates are higher in the south, [ 30 ] a disproportionate number of teachers are stationed there, leaving northern schools chronically understaffed. [ 21 ] Walaupun tingkat kehadiran lebih tinggi di selatan, [30] sejumlah guru yang tidak proporsional ditempatkan di sana, meninggalkan sekolah utara kekurangan kronis. [21]

Six state-run universities serve Cameroon's student population. Enam negara yang dikelola mahasiswa universitas melayani penduduk Kamerun. More than 60,000 students were enrolled for the 1998–1999 school year. Lebih dari 60.000 siswa yang terdaftar untuk tahun 1998-1999 sekolah. A council of deans, school directors, and representatives of state ministries governs the schools under the leadership of a vice-chancellor. Sebuah dewan dekan, kepala sekolah, dan perwakilan dari kementerian negara mengatur sekolah-sekolah di bawah kepemimpinan dari wakil kanselir. State funding for universities is low, and student registrations nominally make up 25% of the higher education budget. Negara pendanaan universitas yang rendah, dan pendaftaran mahasiswa nominal membentuk 25% dari anggaran pendidikan tinggi. However, students have fought these fees since their introduction in 1993. Namun, siswa telah berjuang biaya ini sejak diperkenalkan tahun 1993. Universities have resisted the urge to increase the selectiveness of admissions in an effort to increase revenue from student fees, and the student populations have increased well beyond the 5,000 they were built to educate. Universitas telah menahan keinginan untuk meningkatkan selectiveness dari penerimaan dalam upaya untuk meningkatkan pendapatan dari biaya mahasiswa, dan populasi mahasiswa telah meningkat jauh melampaui 5.000 mereka dibangun untuk mendidik. Likewise, cuts in faculty salaries in 1993 made it difficult to find and keep qualified staff. [ 33 ] Demikian pula, pemotongan gaji fakultas pada tahun 1993 membuatnya sulit untuk menemukan dan mempertahankan staf yang berkualitas. [33]

Since 1990, private institutions have sprung up in five regions. Sejak 1990, lembaga swasta bermunculan di lima wilayah. These schools charge fees that are five to ten times those levied by state schools. Sekolah-sekolah memungut biaya yang lima sampai sepuluh kali yang dipungut oleh sekolah negeri. Nevertheless, they offer short professional-training programmes in areas such as accounting, management, journalism, and Internet technologies, so they are popular with students. Namun demikian, mereka menawarkan program singkat profesional-pelatihan di bidang-bidang seperti akuntansi, manajemen, jurnalisme, dan teknologi internet, sehingga mereka populer dengan mahasiswa. Certain schools nonetheless fall short of government minimum standards of infrastructure and faculty and must operate unlicensed. [ 33 ] Beberapa sekolah tetap tidak memenuhi standar minimum pemerintah infrastruktur dan fakultas dan harus beroperasi tanpa izin. [33]

The quality of health care is generally low. [ 34 ] Outside the major cities, facilities are often dirty and poorly equipped. [ 35 ] Endemic diseases include dengue fever , filariasis , leishmaniasis , malaria , meningitis , schistosomiasis , and sleeping sickness . [ 36 ] The HIV / AIDS seroprevalence rate is estimated at 5.4% for those aged 15–49, [ 37 ] although a strong stigma against the illness keeps the number of reported cases artificially low. [ 34 ] Traditional healers remain a popular alternative to Western medicine. [ 38 ] Kualitas layanan kesehatan umumnya rendah. [34] Di luar kota-kota besar, fasilitas sering kotor dan kurang dilengkapi. [35] endemik penyakit termasuk demam berdarah , filariasis , leishmaniasis , malaria , meningitis , schistosomiasis , dan penyakit tidur . [36 ] The HIV / AIDS tingkat prevalensi diperkirakan sebesar 5,4% untuk orang usia 15-49, [37] meskipun stigma yang kuat terhadap penyakit terus jumlah kasus yang dilaporkan secara artifisial rendah. [34] penyembuh Tradisional tetap menjadi alternatif yang populer untuk pengobatan Barat . [38]

[ edit ] Territorial administration [ sunting ] Wilayah administrasi

The Ministry of Territorial Administration (MINATD) is responsible for preparation, implementation and assessment of government policy on territorial administration, decentralization , and civil protection, [ 39 ] which includes prevention of natural and planning for disasters. Para Menteri Administrasi Wilayah (MINATD) bertanggung jawab atas penyusunan, pelaksanaan dan penilaian kebijakan pemerintah pada administrasi wilayah, desentralisasi , dan perlindungan sipil, [39] yang mencakup pencegahan alam dan perencanaan untuk bencana. It is the duty of the MINATD to organize the territorial administrative units and external services and to organize national and local elections and referendums. Ini adalah tugas MINATD untuk mengatur unit-unit administrasi teritorial dan layanan eksternal dan untuk mengatur pemilihan nasional dan lokal dan referendum.

[ edit ] Regions [ sunting ] Kawasan

Cameroon is divided into 10 regions. Kamerun terbagi menjadi 10 daerah.

The constitution divides Cameroon into 10 semi-autonomous regions, each under the administration of an elected Regional Council . The konstitusi Kamerun membagi menjadi 10 daerah semi-otonom, masing-masing di bawah administrasi yang terpilih Dewan Daerah . A presidential decree of 12 November 2008 officially instigated the change from provinces to regions. [ 40 ] Each region is headed by a presidentially appointed governor. Sebuah keputusan presiden tanggal 12 November 2008 resmi menghasut perubahan dari provinsi untuk daerah. [40] Setiap wilayah dipimpin oleh seorang gubernur ditunjuk oleh presiden. These leaders are charged with implementing the will of the president, reporting on the general mood and conditions of the regions, administering the civil service, keeping the peace, and overseeing the heads of the smaller administrative units. Para pemimpin ini dibebankan dengan melaksanakan kehendak presiden, melaporkan suasana umum dan kondisi daerah, administrasi kepegawaian, menjaga perdamaian, dan mengawasi para kepala unit administrasi yang lebih kecil. Governors have broad powers: they may order propaganda in their area and call in the army, gendarmes , and police. [ 41 ] All local government officials are employees of the central government's Ministry of Territorial Administration, from which local governments also get most of their budgets. [ 42 ] Gubernur memiliki wewenang luas: mereka dapat memerintahkan propaganda di daerah mereka dan memanggil tentara, polisi militer , dan polisi. [41] Semua pejabat pemerintah daerah adalah karyawan pemerintah pusat Departemen Wilayah Administrasi, dari pemerintah daerah juga mendapatkan sebagian besar dari mereka anggaran. [42]

The regions are subdivided into 58 divisions (French départements ). Daerah-daerah terbagi menjadi 58 divisi (département Perancis). These are headed by presidentially appointed divisional officers ( préfets ), who perform the governors' duties on a smaller scale. Ini adalah divisi yang dipimpin oleh pejabat yang ditunjuk oleh presiden ( préfets ), yang melakukan gubernur 'tugas pada skala yang lebih kecil. The divisions are further sub-divided into sub-divisions ( arrondissements ), headed by assistant divisional officers ( sous-prefets ). Pembagian lebih lanjut dibagi ke dalam sub-divisi (arondisemen), dipimpin oleh asisten perwira divisi (sous-prefets). The districts, administered by district heads ( chefs de district ), are the smallest administrative units. Distrik, yang dikelola oleh kepala distrik (koki de distrik), merupakan unit administrasi terkecil. These are found in large sub-divisions and in regions that are difficult to reach. Ini ditemukan di sub divisi besar dan di daerah yang sulit dijangkau.

The three northernmost regions are the Far North ( Extrême Nord ), North ( Nord ), and Adamawa ( Adamaoua ). Tiga wilayah utara adalah Utara Jauh (Extreme Nord), Utara (Nord), dan Adamawa (Adamaoua). Directly south of them are the Centre ( Centre ) and East ( Est ). Langsung selatan mereka adalah Centre (Pusat) dan Timur (Est). The South Province ( Sud ) lies on the Gulf of Guinea and the southern border. The Provinsi Selatan (Sud) terletak di Teluk Guinea dan perbatasan selatan. Cameroon's western region is split into four smaller regions: The Littoral ( Littoral ) and Southwest ( Sud-Ouest ) regions are on the coast, and the Northwest ( Nord-Ouest ) and West ( Ouest ) regions are in the western grassfields. barat wilayah Kamerun terbagi menjadi empat daerah yang lebih kecil: The Littoral (Littoral) dan Southwest (Sud-Ouest) adalah daerah di pantai, dan Barat Laut (Nord-Ouest) dan Barat (Ouest) daerah berada di grassfields barat. The Northwest and Southwest were once part of British Cameroons; the other regions were in French Cameroun. Northwest dan Southwest pernah bagian dari Kamerun Inggris; daerah lainnya dalam bahasa Prancis Kamerun.

[ edit ] Geography and climate [ sunting ] Geografi dan iklim

Volcanic plugs dot the landscape near Rhumsiki , Far North Region. Sumbat vulkanik dot lanskap dekat Rhumsiki , Far North Region.

At 475,442 square kilometres (183,569 sq mi ), Cameroon is the world's 53rd-largest country. [ 43 ] It is comparable in size to Papua New Guinea and somewhat larger than the US state of California . [ 1 ] [ 44 ] The country is located in Central and West Africa on the Bight of Bonny , part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean . Pada 475.442 kilometer persegi (183.569 sq mi ), Kamerun adalah dunia 53-terbesar negara itu. [43] Hal ini sebanding dengan ukuran Papua New Guinea dan agak lebih besar dari negara bagian California . [1] [44] Negara ini terletak di Tengah dan Afrika Barat di Teluk Bonny , bagian dari Teluk Guinea dan Samudera Atlantik . Tourist literature describes Cameroon as "Africa in miniature" because it exhibits all major climates and vegetation of the continent: coast, desert, mountains, rainforest, and savanna. [ 45 ] The country's neighbours are Nigeria to the west; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea , Gabon, and the Republic of the Congo to the south. sastra Wisatawan menggambarkan Kamerun sebagai "Afrika dalam miniatur" karena menunjukkan semua iklim utama dan vegetasi benua: pantai, gurun, pegunungan, hutan hujan, dan savana. [45] negara tetangga ini adalah Nigeria di barat, Chad di timur laut; di Republik Afrika Tengah di timur, dan Equatorial Guinea , Gabon, dan Republik Kongo di selatan.

Cameroon is divided into five major geographic zones distinguished by dominant physical, climatic, and vegetative features. Kamerun dibagi menjadi lima zona geografis yang signifikan dibedakan dengan ciri-ciri fisik, iklim, dan vegetatif dominan. The coastal plain extends 15 to 150 kilometres (9 to 93 mi) inland from the Gulf of Guinea [ 46 ] and has an average elevation of 90 metres (295 ft). [ 47 ] Exceedingly hot and humid with a short dry season , this belt is densely forested and includes some of the wettest places on earth, part of the Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests . [ 48 ] [ 49 ] Dataran pantai meluas 15-150 kilometer (9-93 mil) dari daratan Teluk Guinea [46] dan memiliki ketinggian rata-rata 90 meter (295 kaki). [47] sangat panas dan lembab dengan singkat musim kemarau , ini sabuk yang padat hutan dan termasuk beberapa tempat terbasah di bumi, bagian dari -Sanaga-Bioko hutan pesisir Cross . [48] [49]

The South Cameroon Plateau rises from the coastal plain to an average elevation of 650 metres (2,133 ft). [ 50 ] Equatorial rainforest dominates this region, although its alternation between wet and dry seasons makes it is less humid than the coast. The Plateau Kamerun Selatan meningkat dari dataran pantai pada ketinggian rata-rata 650 meter (2.133 kaki). [50] Khatulistiwa mendominasi hutan hujan wilayah ini, meskipun pergantian tersebut antara basah dan musim kering membuat kurang lembab dari pantai. This area is part of the Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests ecoregion . Daerah ini merupakan bagian dari hutan pantai Atlantik Khatulistiwa ekoregion .

Countryside near Ngaoundal in Cameroon's Adamawa Region . Desa dekat Ngaoundal di Kamerun Adamawa Daerah .

An irregular chain of mountains, hills, and plateaus known as the Cameroon range extends from Mount Cameroon on the coast—Cameroon's highest point at 4,095 metres (13,435 ft) [ 51 ] —almost to Lake Chad at Cameroon's northern tip. Sebuah rantai yang tidak teratur dari pegunungan, bukit, dan dataran tinggi yang dikenal sebagai rentang Kamerun memanjang dari Gunung Kamerun di pantai-Kamerun titik tertinggi pada 4.095 meter (13.435 kaki) [51] -hampir ke Danau Chad di ujung utara's Kamerun. This region has a mild climate, particularly on the Western High Plateau , although rainfall is high. Daerah ini memiliki iklim ringan, terutama di Dataran Tinggi Tinggi Barat , meskipun curah hujan tinggi. Its soils are among Cameroon's most fertile, especially around volcanic Mount Cameroon. [ 51 ] Volcanism here has created crater lakes . Its tanah adalah salah satu yang paling subur Kamerun, terutama di sekitar Gunung berapi Kamerun. [51] Volcanism di sini telah dibuat danau kawah . On 21 August 1986, one of these, Lake Nyos , belched carbon dioxide and killed between 1,700 and 2,000 people. [ 52 ] This area has been delineated by the World Wildlife Fund as the Cameroonian Highlands forests ecoregion . Pada tanggal 21 Agustus 1986, salah satu dari ini, Danau Nyos , bersendawa karbon dioksida dan membunuh antara 1.700 dan 2.000 orang. [52] daerah ini telah digambarkan oleh World Wildlife Fund sebagai hutan Kamerun Highlands ekoregion .

The southern plateau rises northward to the grassy, rugged Adamawa Plateau . Dataran tinggi selatan ke utara meningkat, berumput kasar Adamawa Plateau . This feature stretches from the western mountain area and forms a barrier between the country's north and south. Fitur ini membentang dari daerah pegunungan barat dan membentuk penghalang antara negara utara dan selatan. Its average elevation is 1,100 metres (3,609 ft), [ 50 ] and its temperature ranges from 22 °C (71.6 °F) to 25 °C (77 °F) with high rainfall. [ 53 ] The northern lowland region extends from the edge of the Adamawa to Lake Chad with an average elevation of 300 to 350 metres (984 to 1,148 ft). [ 51 ] Its characteristic vegetation is savanna scrub and grass. ketinggian rata-rata adalah 1.100 meter (3.609 kaki), [50] dan rentang temperatur dari 22 ° C (71,6 ° F) hingga 25 ° C (77 ° F) dengan curah hujan tinggi. [53] The kawasan dataran rendah utara memanjang dari tepi Adamawa ke Danau Chad dengan ketinggian rata-rata 300-350 meter (984 sampai 1.148 kaki). [51] karakteristik vegetasi adalah semak dan rumput savana. This is an arid region with sparse rainfall and high median temperatures. Ini merupakan daerah kering dengan curah hujan yang tipis dan suhu rata-rata tinggi.

Cameroon has four patterns of drainage. Kamerun memiliki empat pola drainase. In the south, the principal rivers are the Ntem , Nyong , Sanaga , and Wouri. Di selatan, sungai-sungai utama adalah Ntem , Nyong , Sanaga , dan Wouri. These flow southwestward or westward directly into the Gulf of Guinea. Aliran ini ke arah barat daya atau ke arah barat langsung ke Teluk Guinea. The Dja and Kadéï drain southeastward into the Congo River . The Dja dan Kadéï mengalir ke arah tenggara ke Sungai Kongo . In northern Cameroon, the Bénoué River runs north and west and empties into the Niger . Di Kamerun utara, Sungai Bénoué berjalan utara dan barat dan bermuara di Niger . The Logone flows northward into Lake Chad, which Cameroon shares with three neighbouring countries. The Logone mengalir ke utara ke Danau Chad, yang Kamerun saham dengan tiga negara tetangga.

[ edit ] Economy and infrastructure [ sunting Ekonomi] dan infrastruktur

Fishing is a major industry in Cameroon. Perikanan adalah industri utama di Kamerun. Fifteenth-century Portuguese explorers found prawns in such abundance that they named the area Rio dos Camarões ("River of Prawns"), the name from which Cameroon derives. Abad kelima belas penjelajah Portugis yang ditemukan udang yang berlimpah sehingga mereka menamai wilayah Rio dos Camarões ("Sungai Udang"), nama yang berasal Kamerun. This prawn was caught at Limbe in 2007. udang ini tertangkap di Limbe pada tahun 2007.

Cameroon's per-capita GDP ( PPP ) was estimated as US $ 2,300 in 2008, [ 54 ] one of the ten highest in sub-Saharan Africa. [ 55 ] Major export markets include France, Italy, South Korea, Spain, and the United Kingdom. [ 1 ] Cameroon is part of the Bank of Central African States (of which it is the dominant economy), [ 55 ] the Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (UDEAC) and the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa ( OHADA ). [ 56 ] Kamerun-kapita GDP per ( PPP ) diperkirakan mencapai US $ 2.300 pada tahun 2008, [54] salah satu dari sepuluh yang tertinggi di sub-Sahara Afrika. [55] pasar ekspor utama termasuk Perancis, Italia, Korea Selatan, Spanyol, dan Amerika Kerajaan. [1] Kamerun merupakan bagian dari Bank Sentral Amerika Afrika (yang itu adalah ekonomi yang dominan), [55] dengan Bea dan Ekonomi Uni Afrika Tengah (UDEAC) dan Organisasi untuk Harmonisasi Hukum Bisnis di Afrika ( OHADA ). [56]

Its currency is the CFA franc . mata uang adalah dengan franc CFA . Red tape, high taxes, and endemic corruption have impeded growth of the private sector. Red tape, pajak tinggi, dan korupsi telah menghambat pertumbuhan sektor swasta. Unemployment was estimated at 30% in 2001, and about a third of the population was living below the international poverty threshold of US$1.25 a day in 2009. [ 57 ] Since the late 1980s, Cameroon has been following programmes advocated by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to reduce poverty, privatise industries, and increase economic growth. [ 18 ] Tourism is a growing sector, particularly in the coastal area, around Mount Cameroon, and in the north. Pengangguran diperkirakan sebesar 30% pada tahun 2001, dan sekitar sepertiga dari penduduk hidup di bawah internasional garis kemiskinan sebesar US $ 1,25 hari pada tahun 2009. [57] Sejak akhir tahun 1980an, Kamerun telah mengikuti program yang dianjurkan oleh Bank Dunia dan Dana Moneter Internasional (IMF) untuk mengurangi kemiskinan, privatisasi industri, dan meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonomi. [18] Pariwisata merupakan sektor yang tumbuh, terutama di daerah pesisir, di sekitar Gunung Kamerun, dan di utara.

Cameroon's natural resources are very well suited to agriculture and arboriculture. sumber daya alam Kamerun sangat cocok untuk pertanian dan ilmu pengetahuan hutan. An estimated 70% of the population farms, and agriculture comprised an estimated 19.8% of GDP in 2009. [ 1 ] Most agriculture is done at the subsistence scale by local farmers using simple tools. Sebuah diperkirakan 70% dari populasi peternakan, dan pertanian terdiri diperkirakan merupakan 19,8% dari PDB pada tahun 2009. [1] Kebanyakan pertanian dilakukan pada skala subsisten oleh petani lokal dengan menggunakan alat sederhana. They sell their surplus produce, and some maintain separate fields for commercial use. Mereka menjual surplus mereka menghasilkan, dan beberapa mempertahankan bidang yang terpisah untuk penggunaan komersial. Urban centres are particularly reliant on peasant agriculture for their foodstuffs. pusat perkotaan sangat bergantung pada pertanian petani untuk makanan mereka. Soils and climate on the coast encourage extensive commercial cultivation of bananas, cocoa, oil palms, rubber, and tea. Tanah dan iklim di pantai mendorong budidaya komersial ekstensif pisang, kakao, kelapa sawit, karet, dan teh. Inland on the South Cameroon Plateau, cash crops include coffee, sugar, and tobacco. Inland di Kamerun Selatan Plateau, tanaman kas mencakup kopi, gula, dan tembakau. Coffee is a major cash crop in the western highlands, and in the north, natural conditions favour crops such as cotton, groundnuts, and rice. Kopi adalah tanaman kas besar di dataran tinggi barat, dan di utara, kondisi alam yang mendukung tanaman seperti kapas, kacang tanah, dan beras. Reliance on agricultural exports makes Cameroon vulnerable to shifts in their prices. [ 1 ] Ketergantungan pada ekspor pertanian membuat Kamerun rentan terhadap perubahan harga mereka. [1]

A Fulani herder drives his cattle in northern Cameroon. Sebuah Fulani gembala sapi drive di Kamerun utara.

Livestock are raised throughout the country. Ternak dibangkitkan di seluruh negeri. Fishing employs some 5,000 people and provides 20,000 tons of seafood each year. Bushmeat , long a staple food for rural Cameroonians, is today a delicacy in the country's urban centres. Perikanan mempekerjakan sekitar 5.000 orang dan menyediakan makanan laut 20.000 ton setiap tahun. hewan-hewan sekitar , lama makanan pokok untuk Kamerun pedesaan, adalah hari yang lezat di pusat kota negara. The commercial bushmeat trade has now surpassed deforestation as the main threat to wildlife in Cameroon. Perdagangan hewan-hewan sekitar komersial kini telah melampaui deforestasi sebagai ancaman utama bagi satwa liar di Kamerun.

The southern rainforest has vast timber reserves, estimated to cover 37% of Cameroon's total land area. Hutan kayu selatan memiliki cadangan besar, diperkirakan untuk menutupi 37% dari total luas lahan Kamerun. However, large areas of the forest are difficult to reach. Namun, area besar hutan yang sulit dijangkau. Logging, largely handled by foreign-owned firms, provides the government US$60 million a year, and laws mandate the safe and sustainable exploitation of timber. Logging, sebagian besar ditangani oleh perusahaan milik asing, pemerintah menyediakan US $ 60 juta setahun, dan hukum mandat yang aman dan berkelanjutan eksploitasi kayu. Nevertheless, in practice, the industry is one of the least regulated in Cameroon. Namun demikian, dalam prakteknya, industri merupakan salah satu dari paling sedikit diatur di Kamerun.

A bush taxi attempts to pass a stalled logging vehicle on the road between Abong-Mbang and Lomié , East Region. Sebuah taksi semak mencoba untuk melewati kendaraan penebangan macet di jalan antara Abong-Mbang dan Lomié , Wilayah Timur.

Factory-based industry accounted for an estimated 29.7% of GDP in 2009. [ 1 ] More than 75% of Cameroon's industrial strength is located in Douala and Bonabéri . Berbasis industri Pabrik dicatat untuk diperkirakan 29,7% dari PDB pada tahun 2009. [1] Lebih dari 75% dari industri kekuatan's Kamerun terletak di Douala dan Bonabéri . Cameroon possesses substantial mineral resources, but these are not extensively mined . [ 18 ] Petroleum exploitation has fallen since 1985, but this is still a substantial sector such that dips in prices have a strong effect on the economy. Kamerun memiliki sumber daya mineral yang cukup besar, namun hal ini tidak secara ekstensif ditambang . [18] Minyak eksploitasi telah jatuh sejak tahun 1985, tetapi ini masih merupakan sektor yang cukup besar seperti yang dips harga memiliki pengaruh kuat terhadap perekonomian. Rapids and waterfalls obstruct the southern rivers, but these sites offer opportunities for hydroelectric development and supply most of Cameroon's energy. Rapids dan air terjun yang menghalangi sungai selatan, tapi situs-situs tersebut menawarkan peluang untuk pengembangan pembangkit listrik tenaga air dan memasok sebagian besar energi Kamerun. The Sanaga River powers the largest hydroelectric station, located at Edéa. The Sanaga Sungai kekuasaan stasiun pembangkit listrik tenaga air terbesar, terletak di Edea. The rest of Cameroon's energy comes from oil-powered thermal engines. Sisanya energi Kamerun berasal dari mesin bertenaga minyak panas. Much of the country remains without reliable power supplies. Sebagian besar dari wilayahnya tetap tanpa catu daya dapat diandalkan.

Transport in Cameroon is often difficult. Transportasi di Kamerun sering sulit. Except for the several relatively good toll roads which connect major cities (all of them one-lane) roads are poorly maintained and subject to inclement weather, since only 10% of the roadways are tarred. [ 1 ] Roadblocks often serve little other purpose than to allow police and gendarmes to collect bribes from travellers. [ 58 ] Road banditry has long hampered transport along the eastern and western borders, and since 2005, the problem has intensified in the east as the Central African Republic has further destabilised. [ 59 ] Kecuali untuk beberapa relatif baik jalan tol yang menghubungkan kota-kota besar (semuanya satu jalur) jalan yang tidak terpelihara dan tunduk pada cuaca buruk, karena hanya 10% dari jalan-jalan yang berlapis ter. [1] rintangan seringkali menjadi tujuan lain sedikit daripada untuk memungkinkan polisi dan polisi militer untuk mengumpulkan uang suap dari pelancong. [58] Road banditisme telah lama menghambat transportasi sepanjang perbatasan timur dan barat, dan sejak tahun 2005, masalah telah intensif di timur sebagai Republik Afrika Tengah telah lebih jauh destabilisasi. [59]

Intercity bus services run by multiple private companies connect all major cities. Intercity bus layanan yang dijalankan oleh beberapa perusahaan swasta menghubungkan semua kota besar. Although intercity buses rarely depart on schedule but rather wait until all the tickets are sold. Meskipun jarang bis antar kota berangkat pada jadwal melainkan menunggu sampai semua tiket yang dijual. They are the most popular mean of transportation followed by the government-owned rail service. Mereka mean transportasi paling populer diikuti oleh layanan kereta api milik pemerintah. Rail service runs from Kumba in the west to Bélabo in the east and north to Ngaoundéré. Layanan Kereta Api berjalan dari Kumba di barat sampai Bélabo di timur dan utara ke Ngaoundéré. International airports are located in Douala and Garoua with a smaller facility at Yaoundé . bandara internasional terletak di Douala dan Garoua dengan fasilitas yang lebih kecil di Yaoundé . The airport at Bamenda is now closed. Bandara di Bamenda sekarang ditutup. The Wouri River estuary provides a harbour for Douala, the country's principal seaport. Wouri muara Sungai menyediakan pelabuhan Douala, pelabuhan utama negara itu. In the north, the Bénoué River is seasonally navigable from Garoua across into Nigeria. Di utara, Sungai Bénoué adalah musiman dilayari dari Garoua seberang ke Nigeria.

Although press freedoms have improved since the early 2000s, the press is corrupt and beholden to special interests and political groups. [ 60 ] Newspapers routinely self-censor to avoid government reprisals. [ 21 ] The major radio and television stations are state-run and other communications , such as land-based telephones and telegraphs, are largely under government control. [ 61 ] However, cell phone networks and Internet providers have increased dramatically since the early 2000s [ 62 ] and are largely unregulated. [ 22 ] Walaupun kebebasan pers telah membaik sejak awal 2000-an, pers korup dan terikat kepentingan khusus dan kelompok-kelompok politik. [60] Koran sensor diri secara rutin untuk menghindari pembalasan pemerintah. [21] Radio utama dan stasiun televisi negara dan lain komunikasi , seperti telepon berbasis tanah dan Telegraf, sebagian besar di bawah kendali pemerintah. [61] Namun, jaringan telepon seluler dan penyedia Internet telah meningkat secara dramatis sejak awal tahun 2000-an [62] dan kebanyakan tidak diatur. [22]

Demografi

2009 UN estimates place Cameroon's population at 19,522,000. 2009 PBB memperkirakan populasi Kamerun tempat di 19.522.000. The population is young: an estimated 40.9% are under 15, and 96.7% are under 65. Populasi masih muda: sebuah estimasi 40,9% di bawah 15, dan 96,7% berada di bawah 65. The birth rate is estimated at 34.1 births per 1,000 people, the death rate at 12.2. [ 1 ] The life expectancy is 53.69 years (52.89 years for males and 54.52 years for females). [ 1 ] Tingkat kelahiran diperkirakan 34,1 kelahiran per 1.000 orang, angka kematian pada 12.2. [1] Harapan hidup adalah 53,69 tahun (52,89 tahun untuk pria dan 54,52 tahun untuk perempuan). [1]

Cameroon's population is almost evenly divided between urban and rural dwellers. [ 63 ] Population density is highest in the large urban centres, the western highlands, and the northeastern plain. [ 64 ] Douala , Yaoundé , and Garoua are the largest cities. Kamerun jumlah penduduk hampir merata dibagi antara penduduk perkotaan dan pedesaan. [63] Populasi tertinggi di pusat kota besar, dataran tinggi barat, dan dataran timur laut. [64] Douala , Yaoundé , dan Garoua merupakan kota terbesar. In contrast, the Adamawa Plateau, southeastern Bénoué depression, and most of the South Cameroon Plateau are sparsely populated. [ 65 ] Sebaliknya, Dataran Tinggi Adamawa, depresi Bénoué tenggara, dan sebagian besar Dataran Tinggi Kamerun Selatan yang jarang penduduknya. [65]

People from the overpopulated western highlands and the underdeveloped north are moving to the coastal plantation zone and urban centres for employment. [ 66 ] Smaller movements are occurring as workers seek employment in lumber mills and plantations in the south and east. [ 67 ] Although the national sex ratio is relatively even, these out-migrants are primarily males, which leads to unbalanced ratios in some regions. [ 68 ] Orang-orang dari dataran tinggi barat kelebihan penduduk dan terbelakang utara bergerak ke zona perkebunan pesisir dan pusat kota untuk bekerja. [66] gerakan kecil yang terjadi sebagai pekerja mencari pekerjaan di pabrik pengolahan kayu dan perkebunan di sebelah selatan dan timur. [67] Meskipun rasio jenis kelamin nasional relatif bahkan, these out-migran terutama laki-laki, yang menyebabkan rasio seimbang di beberapa daerah. [68]

Both monogamous and polygamous marriage are practiced, and the average Cameroonian family is large and extended. [ 69 ] In the north, women tend to the home, and men herd cattle or work as farmers. Kedua monogami dan poligami pernikahan dipraktikkan, dan Kamerun keluarga rata-rata besar dan diperpanjang. [69] Di bagian utara, perempuan cenderung rumah, dan kawanan ternak laki-laki atau bekerja sebagai petani. In the south, women grow the family's food, and men provide meat and grow cash crops. Di selatan, wanita tumbuh makanan keluarga, dan laki-laki memberikan daging dan tumbuh tanaman. Cameroonian society is male-dominated, and violence and discrimination against women is common. [ 21 ] [ 22 ] [ 70 ] masyarakat Kamerun adalah didominasi laki-laki, dan kekerasan dan diskriminasi terhadap perempuan adalah umum. [21] [22] [70]

The homes of the Musgum , in the Far North Region, are made of earth and grass. Rumah dari Musgum , di Far North Daerah, terbuat dari tanah dan rumput.

Perkiraan mengidentifikasi mana saja 230-282 orang yang berbeda dan kelompok linguistik di Kamerun. [71] [72] Dataran tinggi Adamawa membagi luas ini ke dalam divisi utara dan selatan. The northern peoples are Sudanese groups, who live in the central highlands and the northern lowlands, and the Fulani, who are spread throughout northern Cameroon. Masyarakat utara adalah kelompok Sudan, yang tinggal di dataran tinggi tengah dan dataran rendah utara, dan Fulani, yang tersebar di seluruh Kamerun utara. A small number of Shuwa Arabs live near Lake Chad. Sejumlah kecil Shuwa Arab tinggal di dekat Danau Chad. Southern Cameroon is inhabited by speakers of Bantu and Semi-Bantu languages. Kamerun Selatan dihuni oleh penutur Bantu dan Semi-Bantu bahasa. Bantu-speaking groups inhabit the coastal and equatorial zones, while speakers of Semi-Bantu languages live in the Western grassfields. Bantu kelompok berbahasa mendiami wilayah pesisir dan khatulistiwa, sedangkan penutur bahasa Semi-Bantu tinggal di grassfields Barat. Some 5,000 Pygmies roam the southeastern and coastal rainforests or live in small, roadside settlements. [ 73 ] Nigerians, make up the largest group of foreign nationals. [ 74 ] Sekitar 5.000 Pigmi berkeliaran di hutan hujan tropis dan pantai tenggara atau tinggal di kecil, pemukiman di pinggir jalan. [73] Nigeria, membentuk kelompok terbesar warga asing. [74]

In 2007, Cameroon hosted a total population of refugees and asylum seekers of approximately 97,400. Pada tahun 2007, Kamerun menyelenggarakan total populasi pengungsi dan pencari suaka sekitar 97.400. Of these, 49,300 were from the Central African Republic (many driven west by war), [ 75 ] 41,600 from Chad , and 2,900 from Nigeria . [ 76 ] Kidnappings of Cameroonian citizens by Central African bandits have increased since 2005. [ 59 ] Dari jumlah tersebut, 49.300 berasal dari Republik Afrika Tengah (barat banyak didorong oleh perang), [75] 41.600 dari Chad , dan 2.900 dari Nigeria . [76] Penculikan warga Kamerun oleh bandit Afrika Tengah meningkat sejak tahun 2005. [59]

The European languages introduced during colonialism have created a linguistic divide between the population who live in the Northwest and Southwest regions and the French-speaking remainder of the country. [ 77 ] Both English and French are official languages, although French is by far the most understood language. Cameroonian Pidgin English is the lingua franca in the formerly British-administered territories. [ 78 ] A mixture of English, French, and Pidgin called Camfranglais has been gaining popularity in urban centres since the mid-1970s. [ 79 ] Bahasa-bahasa Eropa diperkenalkan selama kolonialisme telah menciptakan membagi linguistik antara penduduk yang tinggal di daerah Barat Laut dan Barat Daya dan sisanya berbahasa negeri Perancis. [77] Kedua bahasa Inggris dan Perancis adalah bahasa resmi, meskipun Perancis adalah yang paling mengerti bahasa. Kamerun Pidgin Bahasa Inggris adalah lingua franca dalam wilayah administratif sebelumnya-Inggris. [78] Sebuah campuran bahasa Inggris, Perancis, dan Pidgin disebut Camfranglais telah mendapatkan popularitas di pusat-pusat perkotaan sejak pertengahan tahun 1970-an. [79]

[ edit ] Religion [ sunting ] Agama

Religion in Cameroon Agama di Kamerun
religion agama percent persen
Christian Kristen 40% 40%
Indigenous Pribumi 40% 40%
Islam Islam 20% 20%

[ 1 ] [1]

Cameroon has a high level of religious freedom and diversity. [ 21 ] Christians are concentrated chiefly in the southern and western regions, and Muslims reside in large numbers in every region but are concentrated in the north. Kamerun memiliki tingkat tinggi kebebasan beragama dan keanekaragaman. [21] Kristen terkonsentrasi terutama di daerah selatan dan barat, dan umat Islam berada dalam jumlah besar di setiap wilayah tetapi terkonsentrasi di utara. There is significant internal migration. Ada migrasi internal yang signifikan. There are currently no active Islamic political parties. [ 80 ] Large cities have significant populations of both groups, with mosques and churches often located near each other. [ 81 ] Saat ini tidak ada Islam partai politik aktif. [80] kota besar memiliki populasi yang signifikan dari kedua kelompok, dengan masjid dan gereja sering berlokasi dekat satu sama lain. [81]

People from the North-West and South-West provinces are largely Protestant, and the French speaking regions of the southern and western regions are largely Catholic. Orang-orang dari Utara-Barat dan provinsi Selatan-Barat sebagian besar Protestan, dan daerah-daerah berbahasa Perancis daerah selatan dan barat sebagian besar Katolik. Southern ethnic groups predominantly follow Christian or Animist beliefs, or a syncretic combination of the two. kelompok etnis dominan Selatan mengikuti Kristen atau animis keyakinan, atau sinkretis kombinasi keduanya. People widely believe in witchcraft, and the government outlaws such practices. [ 82 ] Suspected witches are often subject to mob violence. [ 21 ] Orang banyak percaya pada sihir, dan pemerintah pelanggar hukum praktik tersebut. [82] Dugaan penyihir sering tunduk pada kekerasan massa. [21]

In the northern regions, the locally dominant Fulani (or Peuhl) ethnic group is mostly Muslim, although some ethnic groups retain native animist beliefs and are called Kirdi ("pagan") by the Fulani. Di daerah utara, yang dominan Fulani lokal (atau Peuhl) kelompok etnis adalah sebagian besar Muslim, meskipun beberapa kelompok etnis mempertahankan kepercayaan animis asli dan disebut Kirdi ("kafir") oleh Fulani. The Bamum ethnic group of the West Region is largely Muslim. The Bamum kelompok etnis Daerah Barat sebagian besar Muslim. Native Traditional religions are practiced in rural areas throughout the country but rarely are practiced publicly in cities, in part because many indigenous religious groups are intrinsically local in character. [ 81 ] agama tradisional asli yang dipraktekkan di daerah pedesaan di seluruh negeri tetapi jarang dipraktikkan publik di kota-kota, sebagian karena banyak kelompok-kelompok agama adat secara intrinsik lokal dalam karakter. [81]

[ edit ] Culture [ sunting ] Budaya

Baka dancers greet visitors to the East Region. Baka penari menyapa pengunjung ke Wilayah Timur.
Holidays Liburan
Date Tanggal English Name Nama Inggris
1 January 1 Januari New Year's Day Hari Tahun Baru
11 February 11 Februari National Youth Day Hari Pemuda Nasional
1 May 1 Mei Labour Day Hari Buruh
20 May 20 Mei National Day Hari Nasional
15 August 15 Agustus Assumption Anggapan
1 October 1 Oktober Unification Day Hari Unifikasi
25 December 25 Desember Christmas Natal

Each of Cameroon's ethnic groups has its own unique cultural forms. Masing-masing kelompok etnis Kamerun memiliki bentuk sendiri budaya yang unik. Typical celebrations include births, deaths, plantings, harvests, and religious rituals. perayaan yang khas termasuk kelahiran, kematian, penanaman, panen, dan ritual keagamaan. Seven national holidays are observed throughout the year, and movable holidays include the Christian holy days of Good Friday , Easter Sunday, Easter Monday , and Ascension ; and the Muslim holy days of Eid-ul-Fitr , Eid-ul-Adha , and Eid Miladun Nabi . Tujuh hari libur nasional yang diamati sepanjang tahun, dan hari libur bergerak termasuk hari-hari suci Kristen Jumat Agung , Paskah hari Minggu, Senin Paskah , dan Mi'raj , dan hari-hari suci Muslim Idul Fitri , Eid-ul-Adha , dan Idul Fitri Miladun Nabi .

One Cameroon langauge has become the object of international attention though the efforts of an interactive langauge learning website at http://www.busuu.com/enc/home . Satu langauge Kamerun telah menjadi objek perhatian internasional meskipun upaya dari langauge website interaktif belajar di http://www.busuu.com/enc/home . The language is called Busuu language and is an unclassified Southern Bantoid language of Cameroon with just 8 speakers left. Bahasa ini disebut Busuu bahasa dan merupakan Selatan unclassified Bantoid bahasa Kamerun dengan hanya 8 speaker kiri.

Music and dance are an integral part of Cameroonian ceremonies, festivals, social gatherings, and storytelling. [ 83 ] Traditional dances are highly choreographed and separate men and women or forbid participation by one sex altogether. [ 84 ] The goals of dances range from pure entertainment to religious devotion. [ 85 ] Traditionally, music is transmitted orally. Musik dan tari merupakan bagian yang tidak terpisahkan dari upacara Kamerun, festival, pertemuan sosial, dan bercerita. [83] tarian tradisional sangat koreografi dan laki-laki dan perempuan terpisah atau partisipasi melarang oleh satu jenis kelamin sama sekali. [84] Tujuan dari berbagai tarian dari murni hiburan untuk pengabdian agama. [85] Secara tradisional, musik ditularkan secara lisan. In a typical performance, a chorus of singers echoes a soloist. [ 86 ] Dalam kinerja khas, paduan suara dari penyanyi solo gema sebuah. [86]

Musical accompaniment may be as simple as clapping hands and stomping feet, [ 87 ] but traditional instruments include bells worn by dancers, clappers, drums and talking drums , flutes, horns, rattles, scrapers, stringed instruments, whistles, and xylophones; the exact combination varies with ethnic group and region. iringan musik dapat yang sederhana seperti bertepuk tangan dan kaki menginjak, [87] tetapi instrumen tradisional termasuk lonceng dikenakan oleh penari, kentungan, drum dan drum berbicara , seruling, tanduk, Guncang, pencakar, senar instrumen, peluit, dan xylophone; yang tepat kombinasi bervariasi dengan kelompok etnis dan daerah. Some performers sing complete songs by themselves, accompanied by a harplike instrument. [ 86 ] [ 88 ] Beberapa artis menyanyikan lagu-lagu yang lengkap dengan sendirinya, disertai dengan instrumen harplike. [86] [88]

Popular music styles include ambasse bey of the coast, assiko of the Bassa, mangambeu of the Bangangte , and tsamassi of the Bamileke. [ 89 ] Nigerian music has influenced Anglophone Cameroonian performers, and Prince Nico Mbarga 's highlife hit " Sweet Mother " is the top-selling African record in history. [ 90 ] The two most popular styles are makossa and bikutsi . gaya musik populer termasuk bey ambasse dari pesisir, assiko dari Bassa, mangambeu dari Bangangte , dan tsamassi dari Bamileke. [89] Nigeria musik telah mempengaruhi artis Anglophone Kamerun, dan Pangeran Nico Mbarga s ' highlife hit " Sweet Ibu "adalah Afrika penjualan catatan-top dalam sejarah. [90] Dua populer paling gaya Makossa dan bikutsi . Makossa developed in Douala and mixes folk music, highlife , soul , and Congo music . Makossa dikembangkan di Douala dan campuran musik rakyat, highlife , jiwa , dan musik Kongo . Performers such as Manu Dibango , Francis Bebey , Moni Bilé , and Petit-Pays popularised the style worldwide in the 1970s and 1980s. Pemain seperti Manu Dibango , Francis Bebey , Moni empedu , dan Petit-Pays mempopulerkan gaya di seluruh dunia pada 1970-an dan 1980-an. Bikutsi originated as war music among the Ewondo. Bikutsi berasal sebagai musik perang antara Ewondo. Artists such as Anne-Marie Nzié developed it into a popular dance music beginning in the 1940s, and performers such as Mama Ohandja and Les Têtes Brulées popularised it internationally during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. [ 91 ] Seniman seperti Anne-Marie Nzié berkembang menjadi sebuah musik dansa populer awal tahun 1940-an, dan artis seperti Mama Ohandja dan Les Têtes Brulées dipopulerkan secara internasional selama tahun 1960-an, 1970-an dan 1980-an. [91]

Cuisine varies by region, but a large, one-course, evening meal is common throughout the country. Masakan bervariasi menurut wilayah, tapi yang besar, satu saja, makan malam adalah umum di seluruh negeri. A typical dish is based on cocoyams, maize, cassava (manioc), millet, plantains, potatoes, rice, or yams, often pounded into dough-like fufu ( cous-cous ). Sebuah hidangan khas didasarkan pada cocoyams, jagung, singkong (ubi kayu), millet, pisang, kentang, beras, atau ubi, sering ditumbuk adonan seperti fufu (sepupu-sepupu). This is served with a sauce, soup, or stew made from greens, groundnuts, palm oil, or other ingredients. [ 92 ] Meat and fish are popular but expensive additions. [ 93 ] Dishes are often quite hot, spiced with salt, red pepper, and Maggi . [ 94 ] Water, palm wine , and millet beer are the traditional mealtime drinks, although beer, soda, and wine have gained popularity. Ini disajikan dengan saus, sup, atau dibuat dari sayuran rebus, kacang tanah, kelapa sawit, atau bahan lainnya. [92] Daging dan ikan yang populer tapi mahal tambahan. [93] Dishes seringkali cukup panas, dibumbui dengan garam, merah merica, dan Maggi . [94] Air, tuak , dan bir millet adalah makan minuman tradisional, walaupun bir, soda, dan anggur telah mendapatkan popularitas. Silverware is common, but food is traditionally manipulated with the right hand. Perak adalah umum, tetapi makanan tradisional dimanipulasi dengan tangan kanan. Breakfast consists of leftovers of bread and fruit with coffee or tea, generally breakfast is made from wheat flour various different foods such as puff-puff (doughnuts), accra banana made from bananas and flour,bean cakes and many more. Sarapan terdiri dari sisa-sisa roti dan buah-buahan dengan kopi atau teh, sarapan umumnya dibuat dari tepung gandum berbagai makanan yang berbeda seperti puff-puff (donat), pisang Accra terbuat dari pisang dan tepung, kue kacang dan banyak lagi. Snacks are popular, especially in larger towns where they may be bought from street vendors. [ 95 ] Makanan ringan yang populer, terutama di kota-kota besar di mana mereka bisa dibeli dari PKL. [95]

A woman weaves a basket near Lake Ossa , Littoral Region. Seorang wanita menjalin sebuah keranjang dekat Danau Ossa , Littoral Daerah. Cameroonians practice such handicrafts throughout the country. Kamerun praktek seperti kerajinan tangan di seluruh negeri.

Traditional arts and crafts are practiced throughout the country for commercial, decorative, and religious purposes. seni dan kerajinan tradisional dijalankan di seluruh negeri untuk tujuan komersial, dekoratif, dan agama. Woodcarvings and sculptures are especially common. [ 96 ] The high-quality clay of the western highlands is suitable for pottery and ceramics. [ 85 ] Other crafts include basket weaving, beadworking, brass and bronze working, calabash carving and painting, embroidery, and leather working. Ukiran kayu dan patung-patung yang sangat umum. [96] The-tanah liat kualitas tinggi dari barat dataran tinggi cocok untuk tembikar dan keramik. [85] kerajinan lainnya termasuk keranjang tenun, beadworking, kuningan dan perunggu bekerja, labu ukiran dan lukisan, bordir, dan kulit bekerja. Traditional housing styles make use of locally available materials and vary from temporary wood-and-leaf shelters of nomadic Mbororo to the rectangular mud-and-thatch homes of southern peoples. gaya perumahan tradisional menggunakan bahan lokal yang tersedia dan bervariasi dari tempat penampungan kayu-dan-daun sementara nomaden Mbororo ke rumah lumpur-dan-ilalang persegi panjang masyarakat selatan. Dwellings made from materials such as cement and tin are increasingly common. [ 97 ] Tempat tinggal terbuat dari bahan-bahan seperti semen dan timah yang semakin umum. [97]

Cameroon faces Germany at Zentralstadion in Leipzig , 27 April 2003. Kamerun menghadapi Jerman di Zentralstadion di Leipzig , 27 April 2003.

Cameroonian literature and film have concentrated on both European and African themes. Kamerun sastra dan film berkonsentrasi pada kedua Eropa dan Afrika tema. Colonial-era writers such as Louis-Marie Pouka and Sankie Maimo were educated by European missionary societies and advocated assimilation into European culture as the means to bring Cameroon into the modern world. [ 98 ] After World War II, writers such as Mongo Beti and Ferdinand Oyono analysed and criticised colonialism and rejected assimilation. [ 99 ] Era kolonial para penulis seperti Louis-Marie Pouka dan Sankie Maimo dididik oleh masyarakat misionaris Eropa dan menganjurkan asimilasi ke dalam budaya Eropa sebagai sarana untuk membawa Kamerun ke dalam dunia modern. [98] Setelah Perang Dunia II, penulis-penulis seperti Mongo Beti dan Ferdinand Oyono dianalisis dan dikritik kolonialisme dan menolak asimilasi. [99]

Shortly after independence, filmmakers such as Jean-Paul Ngassa and Thérèse Sita-Bella explored similar themes. [ 100 ] In the 1960s, Mongo Beti and other writers explored post-colonialism, problems of African development, and the recovery of African identity. [ 101 ] Meanwhile, in the mid-1970s, filmmakers such as Jean-Pierre Dikongué Pipa and Daniel Kamwa dealt with the conflicts between traditional and post-colonial society. Tak lama setelah kemerdekaan, pembuat film seperti Jean-Paul Ngassa dan Theresia Sita-Bella dieksplorasi tema yang sama. [100] Pada tahun 1960, Mongo Beti dan penulis lain dieksplorasi pasca-kolonialisme, masalah pembangunan Afrika, dan pemulihan identitas Afrika. [ 101] Sementara itu, di pertengahan tahun 1970-an, para pembuat film seperti Jean-Pierre Dikongué Pipa dan Daniel Kamwa ditangani dengan konflik antara pasca-kolonial dan masyarakat tradisional. Literature and films during the next two decades concentrated more on wholly Cameroonian themes. [ 102 ] Sastra dan film selama dua dekade mendatang lebih berkonsentrasi di Kamerun tema seluruhnya. [102]

National policy strongly advocates sport in all forms. pendukung kuat kebijakan nasional olahraga dalam segala bentuk. Traditional sports include canoe racing and wrestling, and several hundred runners participate in the 40 km (25 mi) Mount Cameroon Race of Hope each year. [ 103 ] Cameroon is one of the few tropical countries to have competed in the Winter Olympics . olahraga tradisional termasuk perahu balap dan gulat, dan beberapa ratus pelari berpartisipasi dalam 40 km (25 mil) Gunung Kamerun Lomba Hope setiap tahun. [103] Kamerun adalah salah satu dari beberapa negara-negara tropis untuk berkompetisi di Olimpiade Musim Dingin . However, sport in Cameroon is dominated by association football (soccer). Namun, olahraga di Kamerun didominasi oleh asosiasi sepak bola (sepak bola). Amateur football clubs abound, organised along ethnic lines or under corporate sponsors. klub sepak bola amatir abound, yang diselenggarakan sepanjang garis etnis atau di bawah sponsor perusahaan. The Cameroon national football team has been one of the most successful in the world since its strong showing in the 1990 FIFA World Cup . Para Tim nasional sepak bola Kamerun telah menjadi salah satu yang paling sukses di dunia sejak menunjukkan kuat di Piala Dunia 1990 FIFA . Cameroon has won four African Cup of Nations titles and the gold medal at the 2000 Olympics. [ 104 ] Samuel Eto'o and the Cameroon national team did not make it out of the group stages of the 2010 FIFA World Cup . Kamerun telah memenangi empat Piala Afrika judul dan medali emas di Olimpiade 2000. [104] Samuel Eto'o dan tim nasional Kamerun tidak bisa keluar dari tahap grup dari Piala Dunia 2010 FIFA .

[ edit ] Industrial zones/regions [ sunting ] Industri zona / daerah

  • Douala industrial region Douala kawasan industri
    • Bonaberi Industrial Zone Bonaberi Kawasan Industri
    • Dibombari industrial zone Dibombari zona industri
    • Bassa industrial zone Bassa zona industri
  • Edea industrial region Edea kawasan industri
  • Tiko-Limbe Industrial region Tiko-Limbe kawasan Industri
  • Yaounde industrial region Yaounde kawasan industri
  • Garoua – Figuil region Garoua - Figuil daerah
  • Bafoussam – Bamenda industrial region Bafoussam - Bamenda kawasan industri

[ edit ] International rankings [ sunting ] Peringkat internasional

Organization Organisasi Survey Penelitian Ranking Peringkat
Institute for Economics and Peace [1] Lembaga Ekonomi dan Perdamaian [1] Global Peace Index [ 105 ] Indeks Perdamaian Global [105] 95 out of 144 95 dari 144
United Nations Development Programme United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index Indeks Pembangunan Manusia 153 out of 182 153 dari 182
Transparency International Transparansi Internasional Corruption Perceptions Index Indeks Persepsi Korupsi 146 out of 180 146 dari 180
World Economic Forum Forum Ekonomi Dunia Global Competitiveness Report Laporan Daya Saing Global 111 out of 133 111 dari 133

[ edit ] Notes [ sunting ] Catatan

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l CIA World Factbook: Cameroon ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l CIA Factbook Dunia: Kamerun
  2. ^ a b c d "Cameroon" . ^ a b c d "Kamerun" . International Monetary Fund . http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2007&ey=2010&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=622&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr1.x=64&pr1.y=13 . Dana Moneter Internasional. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2007&ey=2010&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=622&s NGDPD =% 2CNGDPDPC% 2CPPPGDP% 2CLP% 2CPPPPC & GRP = 0 & a & pr1.x = = 64 & pr1.y = 13 . Retrieved 2010-04-21 . Diperoleh 2010/04/21.
  3. ^ DeLancey and DeLancey 2. ^ Delancey dan Delancey 2.
  4. ^ Fanso 84. ^ Fanso 84.
  5. ^ a b DeLancey and DeLancey 125. ^ a b Delancey dan 125 Delancey.
  6. ^ a b DeLancey and DeLancey 5. ^ a b Delancey dan 5 Delancey.
  7. ^ DeLancey and DeLancey 4. ^ Delancey dan Delancey 4.
  8. ^ a b DeLancey and DeLancey 6. ^ a b Delancey dan 6 Delancey.
  9. ^ DeLancey and DeLancey 19. ^ Delancey dan Delancey 19.
  10. ^ DeLancey and DeLancey 7. ^ Delancey dan Delancey 7.
  11. ^ DeLancey and DeLancey 8. ^ Delancey dan Delancey 8.
  12. ^ a b DeLancey and DeLancey 9. ^ a b Delancey dan 9 Delancey.
  13. ^ Nkemngu. ^ Nkemngu.
  14. ^ Matthews. ^ Matthews.
  15. ^ "Background Notes: Cameroon; Neba 250. ^ Catatan Latar Belakang ": Kamerun, Neba 250.
  16. ^ a b IRIN, "New anti-corruption drive". ^ a b IRIN, "New anti-korupsi drive".
  17. ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index". ^ "Indeks Persepsi Korupsi".
  18. ^ a b c d e "Background Note: Cameroon". ^ a b c d e "Catatan Latar Belakang: Kamerun".
  19. ^ "Cameroon", Amnesty International; "Cameroon (2006)", Freedom House; "Cameroon", Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, US Department of State; "Elections to the Human Rights Council", Amnesty International. ^ "Cameroon", Amnesty International; "Cameroon (2006)", Freedom House; "Kamerun", Negara Laporan Praktek Hak Asasi Manusia, Departemen Luar Negeri AS; "Pemilihan anggota Dewan Hak Asasi Manusia", Amnesty Internasional.
  20. ^ "Elections to the Human Rights Council". ^ "Pemilihan anggota Dewan Hak Asasi Manusia".
  21. ^ a b c d e f g "Cameroon", Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. ^ a b c d e f g "Kamerun", Negara Laporan Praktek Hak Asasi Manusia.
  22. ^ a b c d "Cameroon (2006)", Freedom House. ^ a b c d "Cameroon (2006)", Freedom House.
  23. ^ "Background Note: Cameroon"; Neba 252. ^ "Latar Belakang Catatan: Kamerun"; Neba 252.
  24. ^ a b West 11. ^ a b Barat 11.
  25. ^ "Cameroon", Amnesty International. ^ "Cameroon", Amnesty International.
  26. ^ Cameroon is ranked a six in both categories on a scale of one to seven, with one being "most free" and seven being "least free". ^ Kamerun menempati peringkat enam di kedua kategori pada skala satu sampai tujuh, dengan satu yang "paling bebas" dan tujuh menjadi "bebas" setidaknya. "Cameroon (2006)", Freedom House. "Cameroon (2006)", Freedom House.
  27. ^ Kandemeh. ^ Kandemeh.
  28. ^ DeLancey and DeLancey 126; Ngoh 328. ^ Delancey dan Delancey 126; 328 Ngoh.
  29. ^ DeLancey and DeLancey 30. ^ Delancey dan Delancey 30.
  30. ^ a b c Mbaku 15. ^ a b c Mbaku 15.
  31. ^ DeLancey and DeLancey 105–6. ^ Delancey dan Delancey 105-6.
  32. ^ Mbaku 16. ^ Mbaku 16.
  33. ^ a b Njeuma. ^ a b Njeuma.
  34. ^ a b DeLancey and DeLancey 21. ^ a b Delancey dan 21 Delancey.
  35. ^ West 64. ^ West 64.
  36. ^ West 58–60. ^ West 58-60.
  37. ^ "Cameroon", UNAIDS. ^ "Cameroon", UNAIDS.
  38. ^ Lantum and andre Monono 14. ^ Lantum dan Andre Monono 14.
  39. ^ http://www.minatd.net/en ^ http://www.minatd.net/en
  40. ^ Décret N° 2008/376 du 12 novembre 2008 , President of the Republic website. ^ Décret N ° 2008/376 du 12 Novembre 2008 , Presiden Republik website. Accessed 9 June 2009. Diakses 9 Juni 2009.
  41. ^ Neba 250. ^ Neba 250.
  42. ^ http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/26431.htm ^ http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/26431.htm
  43. ^ Demographic Yearbook 1. ^ Demografi Yearbook 1.
  44. ^ "Rank Order – Area". ^ "Rank Order - Area".
  45. ^ DeLancey and DeLancey 16. ^ Delancey dan Delancey 16.
  46. ^ Fomesky et al. ^ Fomesky et al. 6. 6.
  47. ^ Neba 14. ^ Neba 14.
  48. ^ Neba 28. ^ Neba 28.
  49. ^ "Highest Average Annual Precipitation Extremes". ^ "Air hujan ekstrim tertinggi Tahunan Rata-rata".
  50. ^ a b Neba 16. ^ a b Neba 16.
  51. ^ a b c Neba 17. ^ a b c Neba 17.
  52. ^ DeLancey and DeLancey 161 report 1,700 killed; Hudgens and Trillo 1054 say "at least 2,000"; West 10 says "more than 2,000". ^ Delancey dan Delancey 161 laporan 1.700 tewas; Hudgens dan Trillo 1054 mengatakan "setidaknya 2.000"; Barat 10 mengatakan "lebih dari 2.000".
  53. ^ Gwanfogbe et al. ^ Gwanfogbe et al. 20; Neba 29. 20; Neba 29.
  54. ^ "CIA Factbook 2009". ^ "CIA Factbook 2009".
  55. ^ a b Musa, "Biya plan to keep power in Cameroon clears hurdle". ^ a b Musa, "rencana Biya untuk menjaga kekuasaan di Kamerun membersihkan rintangan".
  56. ^ " The business law portal in Africa ", OHADA.com. ^ " Hukum bisnis portal di Afrika ", OHADA.com. Accessed 22 March 2009. Diakses 22 Maret 2009.
  57. ^ Human Development Indices , Table 3: Human and income poverty, p. ^ Indeks Pembangunan Manusia , Tabel 3: Manusia dan kemiskinan pendapatan, hal 35. 35. Retrieved on 1 June 2009. URL diakses pada 1 Juni 2009.
  58. ^ Hudgens and Trillo 1036. ^ Hudgens dan Trillo 1036.
  59. ^ a b Musa, "Gunmen kill one, kidnap 22 in Cameroon near CAR". ^ a b Musa, "Orang-orang bersenjata membunuh satu, menculik 22 di Kamerun CAR dekat".
  60. ^ "Cameroon – Annual Report 2007". ^ "Cameroon - Laporan Tahunan 2007".
  61. ^ Mbaku 20. ^ Mbaku 20.
  62. ^ Mbaku 20–1. ^ Mbaku 20-1.
  63. ^ West 3. ^ Barat 3.
  64. ^ Neba 109–11. ^ Neba 109-11.
  65. ^ Neba 111. ^ Neba 111.
  66. ^ Neba 105–6. ^ Neba 105-6.
  67. ^ Neba 106. ^ Neba 106.
  68. ^ Neba 103–4. ^ Neba 103-4.
  69. ^ Mbaku 139. ^ Mbaku 139.
  70. ^ Mbaku 141. ^ Mbaku 141.
  71. ^ Neba 65, 67. ^ Neba 65, 67.
  72. ^ West 13. ^ West 13.
  73. ^ Neba 48. ^ Neba 48.
  74. ^ Neba 108. ^ Neba 108.
  75. ^ International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. ^ Federasi Internasional Bulan Sabit Merah dan Palang.
  76. ^ "World Refugee Survey 2008" . ^ "World Refugee Survey 2008" . US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. Komite AS untuk Pengungsi dan Imigran. 2008-06-19 . http://www.refugees.org/survey . 2008/06/19. http://www.refugees.org/survey .
  77. ^ DeLancey and DeLancey 28. ^ Delancey dan 28 Delancey.
  78. ^ Neba 94. ^ Neba 94.
  79. ^ DeLancey and DeLancey 131; Niba. ^ Delancey dan Delancey 131; Niba.
  80. ^ http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e406?_hi=7&_pos=2 ^ http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e406?_hi=7&_pos=2
  81. ^ a b USDepartment of State ^ a b USDepartment Negara
  82. ^ Geschiere 169–70. ^ Geschiere 169-70.
  83. ^ Mbaku 189; West 18. ^ Mbaku 189; Barat 18.
  84. ^ Mbaku 204. ^ Mbaku 204.
  85. ^ a b West 18. ^ a b Barat 18.
  86. ^ a b Mbaku 189. ^ a b Mbaku 189.
  87. ^ Mbaku 191. ^ Mbaku 191.
  88. ^ West 18–9. ^ 18-9 Barat.
  89. ^ DeLancey and DeLancey 184. ^ Delancey dan Delancey 184.
  90. ^ Mbaku 200. ^ Mbaku 200.
  91. ^ DeLancey and DeLancey 51; Nkolo & Ewens 443. ^ Delancey dan Delancey 51; Nkolo & Ewens 443.
  92. ^ West 84–5. ^ 84-5 Barat.
  93. ^ Mbaku 121–2. ^ Mbaku 121-2.
  94. ^ Hudgens and Trillo 1047; Mbaku 122; West 84. ^ Hudgens dan Trillo 1047; 122 Mbaku; Barat 84.
  95. ^ Mbaku 121; Hudgens and Trillo 1049. ^ Mbaku 121; Hudgens dan Trillo 1049.
  96. ^ West 17. ^ West 17.
  97. ^ Mbaku 110–3. ^ Mbaku 110-3.
  98. ^ Mbaku 80–1 ^ Mbaku 80-1
  99. ^ Fitzpatrick 38; Mbaku 77, 83–4; Volet. ^ Fitzpatrick 38; Mbaku 77, 83-4; Volet.
  100. ^ DeLancey and DeLancey 119–20; West 20. ^ Delancey dan Delancey 119-20; Barat 20.
  101. ^ Mbaku 85–6. ^ Mbaku 85-6.
  102. ^ DeLancey and DeLancey 120. ^ Delancey dan Delancey 120.
  103. ^ West 127. ^ Barat 127.
  104. ^ West 92–3, 127. ^ 92-3 Barat, 127.
  105. ^ "Vision of Humanity" . ^ "Visi Kemanusiaan" . Vision of Humanity . http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php . Visi Kemanusiaan. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php . Retrieved 2010-02-04 . Diperoleh 2010/02/04.

[ edit ] References [ sunting ] Referensi

  • " Background Note: Cameroon ". " Latar Belakang Catatan: Kamerun ". October 2006. Oktober 2006. United States Department of State. Amerika Serikat Departemen Luar Negeri. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • " Cameroon ". Amnesty International Report 2006 . " Kamerun ". Laporan Amnesty Internasional 2006. Amnesty International Publications. Amnesty International Publications. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • " Cameroon ". " Kamerun ". Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 6 March 2007. Negara Laporan Praktek Hak Asasi Manusia, 6 Maret 2007. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US Department of State. Biro Demokrasi, Hak Asasi Manusia, dan Tenaga Kerja, Departemen Luar Negeri AS. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • " Cameroon ". Human Development Report 2006 . " Kamerun ". Laporan Pembangunan Manusia 2006. United Nations Development Programme. United Nations Development Programme. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • " Cameroon ". The World Factbook . " Kamerun ". The World Factbook. United States Central Intelligence Agency. Amerika Serikat Central Intelligence Agency. 15 March 2007. 15 Maret 2007. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • " Cameroon ". " Kamerun ". UNAIDS. UNAIDS. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • " Cameroon (2006) ". Country Report: 2006 Edition . " Cameroon (2006) ". Country Report: 2006 Edisi. Freedom House, Inc. Accessed 6 April 2007. Freedom House, Inc Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • " Cameroon – Annual Report 2007 ". " Kamerun - Laporan Tahunan 2007 ". Reporters without Borders. Wartawan tanpa Batas. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • " CAMEROON: New anti-corruption drive leaves many sceptical ". " Kamerun: New anti-korupsi drive banyak daun skeptis ". 27 January 2006. IRIN . 27 Januari 2006. IRIN. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Kantor PBB untuk Koordinasi Urusan Kemanusiaan. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Cameroon ( English and French versions). Undang-Undang Dasar Republik Kamerun ( Bahasa Inggris dan Perancis versi). 18 January 1996. 18 Januari 1996. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • " Corruption Perceptions Index 2007 ". " Indeks Persepsi Korupsi 2007 ". Transparency International. Transparansi Internasional. Accessed 28 September 2007. Diakses 28 September 2007.
  • DeLancey, Mark W., and Mark Dike DeLancey (2000): Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon (3rd ed.). Delancey, W. Mark, dan Mark Delancey Dike (2000): Kamus Sejarah Republik Kamerun (3rd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press.
  • Demographic Yearbook 2004 . Demografi Yearbook 2004 . United Nations Statistics Division. Divisi Statistik PBB.
  • " 2006 Elections to the Human Rights Council: Background information on candidate countries ". " 2006 Pemilihan anggota Dewan Hak Asasi Manusia: Latar belakang informasi pada negara-negara kandidat ". May 2006. Mei 2006. Amnesty International Publications. Amnesty International Publications. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • Fanso, VG (1989). Cameroon History for Secondary Schools and Colleges, Vol. Fanso, VG (1989). Kamerun Sejarah untuk Sekolah Menengah dan Sekolah Tinggi, Vol. 1: From Prehistoric Times to the Nineteenth Century. Hong Kong: Macmillan Education Ltd. 1: Dari Times Prasejarah untuk Abad Kesembilan Belas. Hong Kong: Macmillan Education Ltd
  • Fitzpatrick, Mary (2002). Fitzpatrick, Mary (2002). "Cameroon." Lonely Planet West Africa , 5th ed. "Kamerun Afrika. Barat Lonely Planet", ed 5. China: Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd. China: Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd
  • Fomensky, R., M. Gwanfogbe, and F. Tsala, editorial advisers (1985) Macmillan School Atlas for Cameroon. Malaysia: Macmillan Education Ltd. Fomensky, R., M. Gwanfogbe, dan F. Tsala, editorial penasihat (1985) Macmillan School Atlas untuk Kamerun:. Malaysia Macmillan Education Ltd
  • Fonge, Fuabeh P. (1997). Modernization without Development in Africa: Patterns of Change and Continuity in Post-Independence Cameroonian Public Service . Fonge, Fuabeh P. (1997):. Modernisasi tanpa Pembangunan di Afrika Pola Perubahan dan Kelanjutan Pasca Kemerdekaan Kamerun Pelayanan Publik. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, Inc. Trenton, New Jersey: Afrika Tekan World, Inc
  • Geschiere, Peter (1997). The Modernity of Witchcraft: Politics and the Occult in Postcolonial Africa . Geschiere, Peter (1997):. The Modernitas Politik Sihir dan Gaib di Afrika Postcolonial. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
  • Gwanfogbe, Mathew, Ambrose Meligui, Jean Moukam, and Jeanette Nguoghia (1983). Geography of Cameroon. Hong Kong: Macmillan Education Ltd. Gwanfogbe, Mathew, Ambrose Meligui, Moukam Jean, dan Nguoghia Jeanette (1983).. Geografi Kamerun Hong Kong: Macmillan Education Ltd
  • " Highest Average Annual Precipitation Extremes ". " Air hujan ekstrim tertinggi Tahunan Rata-rata ". Global Measured Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation, National Climatic Data Center , 9 August 2004. Diukur global Temperatur ekstrem dan hujan, Pusat Data Iklim Nasional , 9 Agustus 2004. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • Hudgens, Jim, and Richard Trillo (1999). West Africa: The Rough Guide . Hudgens, Jim, dan Trillo Richard (1999): Barat. Africa Rough Guide. 3rd ed. 3rd ed. London: Rough Guides Ltd. London: Rough Guides Ltd
  • International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (28 May 2007). Federasi Internasional Palang Merah dan Bulan Sabit Masyarakat Merah (28 Mei 2007). " Cameroon: Population Movement; DREF Bulletin no. MDRCM004 ". " Kamerun: Gerakan Penduduk; DREF ada pengumuman. MDRCM004 ". ReliefWeb. ReliefWeb. Accessed 18 June 2007. Diakses 18 Juni 2007.
  • Kandemeh, Emmanuel (17 July 2007). Kandemeh, Emmanuel (17 Juli 2007). " Journalists Warned against Declaring Election Results ", Cameroon Tribune . " Jurnalis Peringatan terhadap Mendeklarasikan Hasil Pemilu ", Kamerun Tribune. Accessed 18 July 2007. Diakses 18 Juli 2007.
  • Lantum, Daniel M., and Martin Ekeke Monono (2005). Lantum, Daniel M., dan Martin Ekeke Monono (2005). "Republic of Cameroon", Who Global Atlas of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine . World Health Organization . "Republik Kamerun", Siapa Atlas Global Tradisional, dan Pengobatan Alternatif Tambahan. Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia .
  • MacDonald, Brian S. (1997). MacDonald, Brian S. (1997). "Case Study 4: Cameroon", Military Spending in Developing Countries: How Much Is Too Much? McGill-Queen's University Press. "Studi Kasus 4:" Kamerun, Belanja Militer di Negara Berkembang: Berapa Banyak Terlalu Banyak? Queen's University Press-McGill.
  • Matthews, Andy (12 March 2008). Matthews, Andy (12 Maret 2008). " Cameroon protests in USA ", Africa News. " Kamerun protes di Amerika Serikat ", Afrika News. Accessed 13 March 2008. Diakses 13 Maret 2008.
  • Mbaku, John Mukum (2005). Culture and Customs of Cameroon . Mbaku, John Mukum (2005). Budaya dan Bea Cukai Kamerun. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
  • Musa, Tansa (8 April 2008). Musa, Tansa (8 April 2008). " Biya plan to keep power in Cameroon clears hurdle ". " rencana Biya untuk menjaga kekuasaan di Kamerun membersihkan rintangan ". Reuters. Reuters. Accessed 9 April 2008. Diakses 9 April 2008.
  • Musa, Tansa (27 June 2007). Musa, Tansa (27 Juni 2007). " Gunmen kill one, kidnap 22 in Cameroon near CAR ". " Orang-orang bersenjata membunuh satu, menculik 22 di Kamerun CAR dekat ". Reuters. Reuters. Accessed 27 June 2007. Diakses 27 Juni 2007.
  • Neba, Aaron (1999). Modern Geography of the Republic of Cameroon, 3rd ed. Neba, Aaron (1999). Geografi Modern Republik Kamerun, 3rd ed. Bamenda: Neba Publishers. Bamenda: Neba Publishers.
  • Niba, Francis Ngwa (20 February 2007). Niba, Francis Ngwa (20 Februari 2007). " New language for divided Cameroon ". " Baru bahasa untuk dibagi Kamerun ". BBC News. BBC News. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • Njeuma, Dorothy L. (no date). Njeuma, Dorothy L. (tanpa tanggal). " Country Profiles: Cameroon ". " Profil Negara: Kamerun ". The Boston College Center for International Higher Education. Boston College Pusat Pendidikan Tinggi Internasional. Accessed 11 April 2008. Diakses 11 April 2008.
  • Nkemngu, Martin A. (11 March 2008). Nkemngu, Martin A. (11 Maret 2008). " Facts and Figures of the Tragic Protests ", Cameroon Tribune . " Fakta dan Angka dari Protes Tragis ", Tribune Kamerun . Accessed 12 March 2008. Diakses 12 Maret 2008.
  • Nkolo, Jean-Victor, and Graeme Ewens (2000). Nkolo, Jean-Victor, dan Ewens Graeme (2000). "Cameroon: Music of a Small Continent". World Music, Volume 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East . "Kamerun: Musik dari Benua Kecil", Dunia. Musik Volume 1: Afrika, Eropa dan Timur Tengah. London: Rough Guides Ltd. London: Rough Guides Ltd
  • " Rank Order – Area ". The World Factbook . " Rank Order - Area ". The World Factbook. United States Central Intelligence Agency. Amerika Serikat Central Intelligence Agency. 15 March 2007. 15 Maret 2007. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • Sa'ah, Randy Joe (23 June 2006). Sa'ah, Randy Joe (23 Juni 2006). " Cameroon girls battle 'breast ironing' ". " pertempuran "Kamerun menyetrika payudara gadis ' ". BBC News. BBC News. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • Swarovski Orchestra (2004). National Anthems of the World . Swarovski Orchestra (2004). Lagu kebangsaan Dunia. Koch International Classics. Koch International Classics. Audio CD. Audio CD.
  • Volet, Jean-Marie (10 November 2006). Volet, Jean-Marie (10 November 2006). " Cameroon Literature at a glance ". Reading women writers and African literatures . " Kamerun Sastra sekilas "perempuan. Membaca penulis dan literatur Afrika. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • West, Ben (2004). Cameroon: The Bradt Travel Guide . West, Ben (2004):. Kamerun Panduan Perjalanan Bradt. Guilford, Connecticut: The Globe Pequot Press Inc. Guilford, Connecticut: The Globe Pequot Press Inc
  • Wight, Susannah, ed. Wight, Susannah, ed. (2006). Cameroon . (2006). Kamerun. Spain: MTH Multimedia SL Spanyol: MTH Multimedia SL
  • " World Economic and Financial Surveys ". " Dunia dan Keuangan Survei Ekonomi ". World Economic Outlook Database, International Monetary Fund. Database Outlook Ekonomi Dunia, Dana Moneter Internasional. September 2006. September 2006. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.
  • World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision Population Database . Prospek Populasi Dunia: 2006 Revisi Database Penduduk . 2006. 2006. United Nations Population Division. United Nations Population Division. Accessed 6 April 2007. Diakses 6 April 2007.

0 Response to "CAMEROON"

Poskan Komentar