Ethiopia

Republik Demokratik Federal Ethiopia (Ityop'iya, bahasa Amhara ኢትዮጵያ) atau Etiopia adalah sebuah negara yang terletak di Afrika.

Ethiopia mempunyai salah satu sejarah terlengkap sebagai negara merdeka di benua tersebut. Merupakan negara tertua di dunia, kawasan Ethiopia juga merupakan salah satu tempat peradaban yang terawal di dunia. Pemerintahan Ethiopia pertama dibentuk sekitar tahun 980 SM dan menerima agama Kristen pada abad ke-4 M. Negara ini cukup unik jika dibandingkan dengan negara-negara Afrika lainnya karena tidak pernah dijajah selama masa Perebutan Afrika, dan terus merdeka hingga tahun 1936, saat pasukan Italia menguasai negara tersebut. Pasukan-pasukan Britania Raya dan Ethiopia mengalahkan tentara Italia pada 1941, dan Ethiopia memperoleh kembali kedaulatannya setelah menanda tangani Perjanjian Britania-Ethiopia pada Desember 1944. Ethiopia dulu pernah bernama Abisinia.

Kini, Ethiopia merupakan negara berbentuk republik dan mengambil bagian secara aktif dalam aktivitas-aktivitas kerjasama internasional. Ibukotanya, Addis Ababa merupakan pusat administrasi Kesatuan Afrika (AU).

Ethiopia masih memakai kalendar Julian sehingga negara ini akan membuka serangkaian perayaan dalam menyambut milenium ketiga berdasarkan penanggalan kalendar tersebut. Negara di Tanduk Afrika ini menggunakan kalender Julian yang ketinggalan sekitar 7 tahun dibandingkan dengan kalender Gregorian yang lebih umum digunakan di seluruh dunia[5].

Kekaisaran Ethiopia, juga disebut Abyssinia, adalah kerajaan yang eksis dari tahun 1270 SM (dimulainya dinasti Solomonid) sampai 1974 ketika monarki dijatuhkan dalam coup d'etat. Negara ini adalah satu-satunya negara Afrika (Liberia yang lain) yang berhasil melawan Perebutan Afrika oleh kekuatan kolonial selama abad ke-19.

Nama

Nama "Ethiopia" konon berasal dari "Ityopp'is", yaitu nama anak cucu Ham, pembentuk kota Aksum. Nama lama "Abbesinia" berasal dari kelompok suku Habesha, yaitu kaum yang mendiami kawasan Ethiopia sejak tahun 3000 SM.

Awal Sejarah

Hunian manusia pertama kali yang ada di Ethiopia diperkirakan telah ada sangat lama sekali dan diperkirakan sama umurnya dengan penemuan spesies manusia pertama yang hidup di bumi ini. Bersama dengan Eritrea dan kawasan Timur Laut Laut Merah -- pantai Sudan, dapat disimpulkan wilayah ini adalah lokasi wilayah kaum Mesir kuno yang disebut Punt yang sejarahnya pertama kali tercatat pada 25 SM. Bukti-bukti permulaan pembentukan sebuah negara sangat banyak di daerah ini, yang diperkirakan akhirnya menjadi sebuah kerajaan Abyssinia pada tahun 980, yang juga menjadi bukti awal pembentukan suatu kerajaan di wilayah ini. Akan tetapi untuk beberapa sejarawan, era ini lebih dianggap sebagai permulan dari dinasti Abyssinia dibanding permulaan pendirian dari kerajaan itu sendiri.

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ ye-Ītyōṗṗyā Fēdēralāwī Dīmōkrāsīyāwī Rīpeblīk
Bendera
Lagu kebangsaan: Wodefit Gesgeshi, Widd Innat Ityopp'ya "March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia".
Ibu kota (dan kota terbesar) Addis Ababa 9°1.8′N 38°44.4′E / 9.03°LU 38.74°BT / 9.03; 38.74
Bahasa resmi Amharic
Bahasa daerah yang diakui Other languages official amongst the different ethnicities and their respective regions.
Kelompok etnik Oromo 34.49%, Amhara 26.89%, Somali 6.20%, Tigray 6.07%; Sidama 4.01%, Gurage 2.53%, Welayta 2.31%[1][2] and around eighty other small ethnic groups.
Demonim Ethiopian
Pemerintahan Federal Parliamentary republic1
- President Girma Wolde-Giorgis
- Prime Minister Meles Zenawi
Establishment
- Traditional date 980 BC
- Current constitution 1991
Luas
- Total 1.104.300 km2 (27th)
- Air (%) 0.7
Penduduk
- Perkiraan 2008 79,221,000[3] (15th²)
- Sensus 2007 73,918,505
- Kepadatan 79/km2 (123rd)
PDB (KKB) Perkiraan 2009
- Total $79.035 billion[4]
- Per kapita $954[4]
PDB (nominal) Perkiraan 2009
- Total $32.319 billion[4]
- Per kapita $390[4]
Gini (1999–00) 30 (medium)
IPM (2007) Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 0.414 (low) (175th)
Mata uang Birr (ETB)
Zona waktu EAT (UTC+3)
- Musim panas (DST) not observed (UTC+3)
Lajur kemudi right
Domain internet .et
Kode telepon 251
1 According to The Economist in its Democracy Index, Ethiopia is a "hybrid regime", with a dominant-party system led by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front.
2 Rank based on 2005 population estimate by the United Nations.
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: St Ragueal church - bell, dome and cupola - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: St Ragueal church - bell, dome and cupola Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Lion of Judah monument, once placed in Rome near the Vittorio Emanuelle memorial - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: Lion of Judah monument, once placed in Rome near the Vittorio Emanuelle memorial
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Bole Medhane Alem Cathedral - dome - SW view - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: Bole Medhane Alem Cathedral - dome - SW view Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Holy Trinity Cathedral - stained glass - St George - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Holy Trinity Cathedral - stained glass - St George
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Bole International Airport (IATA: ADD, ICAO: HAAB) - Ethiopian Airlines - Fokker 50 - passengers disembark - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: Bole International Airport (IATA: ADD, ICAO: HAAB) - Ethiopian Airlines - Fokker 50 - passengers disembark Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Bole International Airport (IATA: ADD, ICAO: HAAB) - International Terminal - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: Bole International Airport (IATA: ADD, ICAO: HAAB) - International Terminal
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Patriots Memorial - Arat kilo - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: Patriots Memorial - Arat kilo Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Martyr's monument - Yekatit 12 Square - Sidist Kilo - tribute to the martyrs' of the Fascist Italian occupation - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: Martyr's monument - Yekatit 12 Square - Sidist Kilo - tribute to the martyrs' of the Fascist Italian occupation
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: mosque on Menelik II avenue - minaret - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: mosque on Menelik II avenue - minaret Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Anwar Mosque - small minaret - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: Anwar Mosque - small minaret
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Lion of Judah monument - Anbessa square - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: Lion of Judah monument - Anbessa square Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Anwar Mosque - main entrance - Merkato area - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: Anwar Mosque - main entrance - Merkato area
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: library of the University - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: library of the University Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: University - Lions at the main gate - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: University - Lions at the main gate
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: London bus - Coca-Cola ad - University - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: London bus - Coca-Cola ad - University Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: London double-deck bus - Podekka - University - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: London double-deck bus - Podekka - University
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: the University - Haile Selassie's Grand palace, also the residence of Rodolfo Graziani, Marchese di Neghelli, Viceroy and Governor-General of Italian East Africa - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: the University - Haile Selassie's Grand palace, also the residence of Rodolfo Graziani, Marchese di Neghelli, Viceroy and Governor-General of Italian East Africa Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Derg Monument - Tiglachin Monument - built by the military junta that ruled the country from 1974 until 1987 - Black Lion Hospital - Churchill av. - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: Derg Monument - Tiglachin Monument - built by the military junta that ruled the country from 1974 until 1987 - Black Lion Hospital - Churchill av.
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: vinyl - Amalia Rodrigues meets Billie Holiday and Aretha Franklin - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: vinyl - Amalia Rodrigues meets Billie Holiday and Aretha Franklin Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: jazz jam session - photo by M.Torres Addis Ababa: jazz jam session
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: Yalewayker Kassie Hotel - Ethiopian El Caminito - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: Yalewayker Kassie Hotel - Ethiopian El Caminito Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: Semien Gondar Zone (North Gondar) Administration Office - Italian colonial building - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: Semien Gondar Zone (North Gondar) Administration Office - Italian colonial building
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: reservoir and flowering Century Plant or Maguey - Agave americana - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: reservoir and flowering Century Plant or Maguey - Agave americana Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: sunset and eucalyptus - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: sunset and eucalyptus
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: main Mosque - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: main Mosque Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: United Bank - Italian colonial architecture - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: United Bank - Italian colonial architecture
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: door with cross - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: door with cross Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: men seek protection from the midday sun - main avenue - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: men seek protection from the midday sun - main avenue
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: Post Office - Piazza - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: Post Office - Piazza Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: injera with meat - Ethiopian food - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: injera with meat - Ethiopian food
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: cars by the City Hall - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: cars by the City Hall Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: colourful house with fragile balcony - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: colourful house with fragile balcony
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: truck with passengers over the cargo - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: truck with passengers over the cargo Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: at the Bus station - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: at the Bus station
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: donkeys on head ot the Merkato - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: donkeys on head ot the Merkato Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: matress shop - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: matress shop
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: bar facade - beer ads - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: bar facade - beer ads Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: Medium Clinic - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: Medium Clinic
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: British football arrives in Ethiopia - Arsenal bike - photo by M.Torres Gondar: British football arrives in Ethiopia - Arsenal bike Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: horse-drawn taxi - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: horse-drawn taxi
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: recently painted facade - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: recently painted facade Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: Piazza and main avenue - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: Piazza and main avenue
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: Circle Hotel - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: Circle Hotel Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: checking the lottery results - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: checking the lottery results
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: road-side rastaurant with chequered facade - photo by M.Torres Gondar road-side rastaurant with chequered facade Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: khat leaves for sale - also known as qat, gat, chat, and miraa - Catha edulis - consumed for the alkaloid cathinone, an amphetamine-like stimulant - photo by M.Torres Gondar: khat leaves for sale - also known as qat, gat, chat, and miraa - Catha edulis - consumed for the alkaloid cathinone, an amphetamine-like stimulant
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: remains of a Russian truck destroyed in the civil war - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: remains of a Russian truck destroyed in the civil war Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: zinc hut shinning in the last sun rays - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: zinc hut shinning in the last sun rays
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: rural landscape - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: rural landscape Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: army training camp - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: army training camp
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: sign at Goha Hotel - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: sign at Goha Hotel Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: washing line - drying linen - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: washing line - drying linen
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: Goha Hotel sign and the city lights - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: Goha Hotel sign and the city lights Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: Atse Teodros Airport - terminal - IATA: GDQ, ICAO: HAGN - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: Atse Teodros Airport - terminal - IATA: GDQ, ICAO: HAGN
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: Gouder red wine - awarded a DDR medal - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: Gouder red wine - awarded a DDR medal Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: Awash Cristal - dry white wine - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: Awash Cristal - dry white wine
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: juice joint - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: juice joint Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: plastic containers wait for a second life - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: plastic containers wait for a second life
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia:hut with thatched and zinc annex - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region:hut with thatched and zinc annex Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: the High Court - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: the High Court
Gondar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: November flowers - photo by M.Torres Gondar, Amhara Region: November flowers

Referensi

  1. ^ 2007 Census, [1]PDF (51.7 KB) . Retrieved 3 may 2009.
  2. ^ Embassy of Ethiopia, Washington, DC. Retrieved 6 April 2006.
  3. ^ Ethiopia Central Statistics Office -- Population Projection for mid-2008
  4. ^ a b c d Ethiopia. International Monetary Fund. Diakses pada 21 April 2010
  5. ^ "Ethiopia kicks off celebrations for third millennium", Associated Press, diakses Mei 2007

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